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I. The Background of Dickens’ Creation
Charles Dickens, who exposes and criticizes in his works all the poverty, injustice, hypocrisy and corruptness he saw all around him. His creations as an epitome of 19th century of England are connected firmly with the times he lived and his own personal experience.
1.1 Social Background in Victorian Age
The Victorian Age runs from 1837-1901 and represents the longest reign of any British monarch. For the most part it was an age of prosperity, of booming economic expansion, which was marked by optimism and self-assurance. At that time Britain leads the world in manufacturing. Factory towns grew into large cities. Banks, retail shops, and other businesses expanded along with the factories. Economy and trade growth resulted in an expansion of the fleet of merchant ships and a powerful navy. Britain once acquired the title“the sun never sets on the British empire”.
Actually, there is still much darkness that seldom talked by others. The Reform Bill of 1832 extended the right to vote to all men owning property worth ten pounds or more. This Bill extended the right to vote to the industrial capitalists and the lower middle class, but not the workers. With the introduction of the steam engine, it was possible for the capitalists to hire unskilled workers, such as women and children. It was not unusual that children of five years of age were dragging heavy loads of coal for 16 hours a day. Many skilled workers were unemployed, and what made the situation worse was the enforcement of the Corn Laws, which forbade importing any grain from foreign countries, this measure kept wheat at a high price, which benefits to the landed class. In that period, child labor should have played an important role in the Industrial Revolution. The displaced working classes, from the seventeenth century on, took it for granted that a family would not be able to support itself if the children were not employed.
In 1840 perhaps only twenty percent of the children of London had any schooling, a number that had risen by 1860, when perhaps half of the children between 5 and 15 were in some sort of school, if only a day school or a Sunday school, the others were working. Many of the fortunate found employment as apprentices or as general servants. The children of the poor were forced by economic conditions to work. Most prostitutes were between 15 and 22 years of age.                                                   
        1.2 Dickens’ Personal Experience
Charles Dickens was born in Land port, Hampshire, who generally considered as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period. Dickens’ works are characterized by attacks on social evils, injustice, and hypocrisy, which are related to his youth oppression.
His father was a clerk in the Naval Pay Office, who was well paid but often ended in financial troubles. He was forced to end school in early teens and worked in a factory, where he would never willing to say in his later life.
 Soon, his father was sent into debt prison for the financial problems, his mother couldn’t support the family, simply together with other children removed to the prison and lived with his father. Although it was not a long period, it made him shamed and never willing to say. Later in 1824-1827, Dickens studied at Willington House Academy, London, and at Mr. Dawson’s school in 1827. From 1827 to 1828, he was a law office clerk, and then worked as a shorthand reporter at Commons and started his creation. These biographies made great effect on his later creations.
II. The Artistic Techniques of Dickens’ Novels
Dickens has a real talent for creating children characters in his works and very empathetic toward children. Dickens wished to show, in Oliver Twist, the principle of good triumphing evil, which expressed his own psychological want in childhood. In David Copperfield, Dickens described in detail the experience of orphaned David worked as a child laborer, which was his own painful memory. The way of Pip’s growth from a boy to a man is also Dickens’ growing awareness to the darkness of bourgeois. Dickens portrayed many deserted children to show either his own experience or the attitude toward his times through children’s point of view. When the characteristics of human being mixed with other species, the combination between inharmonious factors must bring about grotesque. Deviation occurs when it is different from what the readers expect. A rich variety of deviant techniques were used in his novel to intensify melodramatic impact and artistic effect, and the deviation which occurred in speech or other conversations can enrich his creations. In addition, Dickens is good at conveying his intense love and hate by means of exaggeration. The most important feature which people would not ignored is that the transformation between animateness and inanimateness. Also, Dickens’ Christmas Tales reflected his view of Christmas spirit. The effects of Christmas spirit embodied the enlightenment to Scrooge in A Christmas Carol. However, the changes come true just by illusion.
2.1 The Employment of Children Images
Dickens is considered as one of the most popular and beloved writers in the history of English Literature. His works can stand the test of time. More than just an entertainer, Dickens used his enormous popularity to attack injustice and strengthen the sympathies of his readers for the poor and the helpless, for orphans and outcast persons. Among them the characters of children play the most important role in Dickens’ creation. In the history of world literature, perhaps Dickens is the first one who threw tremendous energy into his creations of children. “Reflecting life through children’s point of view is a main characteristic of Dickens’ art of fiction.”(Andrews Malcolm. Dickens and the Grown-up Child Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1994, P43.)#p#分页标题#e#
2.1.1 Oliver Twist: Dickens’ Psychological Want in Childhood
Oliver Twist, published in 1838, is one of Charles Dickens’ best-known and well-loved works. In Oliver’s life he endured all varied hardships. He was unloved and unwanted from the beginning of the novel. He was born of a dying mothering in a parish workhouse and sent to an infant farm, run by Mrs. Mann, until he was 9 years old, when he was returned to the workhouse. In this novel, Dickens not only recalled his child labor’s life but also expressed his childhood want. Dickens wished to show, in little Oliver, the principle of good surviving through every adverse circumstance, and triumphing at last. Although tortured and mistreated in the workhouse, even later was thrown together with the band of thieves, Oliver’s kind nature remained unchanged. As the novel progressed, Oliver found that his honest and kind disposition won him a variety of friends in high places. Although Fagin and the other street urchins continually sought to ruin Oliver’s connections, Oliver’s faithful heart found a home in the end. Oliver did not present a complex picture of a person torn between good and evil, instead, he was goodness incarnate. Oliver’s merits carried him through life and away from the poverty that captured those with weaker morals. In the conclusion of the tale, Oliver found himself among those with equally good manners and morals. His situation was only improved through the inevitable triumph of good over evil. In Oliver Twist, Dickens created happy encounters in which a penniless, hopeless child was offered help from benefactors who freed Oliver from sufferings and dangers many times. From these plots, people seem to see Dickens himself is like a lonely and deserted child who is eagerly expecting happy encounter with good -hearted men by whom he will be offered help. Oliver Twist, as one of Dickens’ masterpieces, is his psychological want in his childhood. Throughout the novel, Dickens used Oliver’s character to challenge the Victorian idea that paupers and criminals are already evil at birth, arguing instead that a corrupt environment is the source of vice. 
2.1.2 David Copperfield: Dickens’ Own Childhood Sufferings
David Copperfield is unique among Dickens’ works for its deeply personal tone. If not autobiography in fact, it is a history of Dickens’ emotional life. In the novel, Dickens described the only ten-year-old child, with his box, containing all his possessions was driven out of home by his cruel stepfather. David was forced to work in Mudstone and Granby’s warehouse. David couldn’t stand the torture and decided to run away from the warehouse. He made his way on foot to his aunt Betsey; fortunately, he was taken in and sent to attend a school. In David Copperfield the voiced anger of son toward mother was almost totally suppressed in David himself. This can be traced back to Dickens’ dawning love for his mother to his being cherished and nurtured by her, taken to her breast, and then being betrayed and rejected by her, banished from her breast. In his later life, David worked harder, which enabled him to master the difficult art of shorthand reporting. This trait stood him in good stead when he became a writer, and was the key to his later success. All these experiences are also emerged in Dickens’ personal life, which makes David Copperfield full of autobiography.#p#分页标题#e#
2.1.3 Pip: Dickens’ Growing Awareness of the Darkness of Bourgeois
The children’s world should be full of tender care and happiness; it should be a worry-free world. In Great Expectations, however, the hero’s world could not be described as such. Pip was an orphan mistreated by his sister and uncle, such living conditions resulted in a timid and sensitive Pip. He felt ashamed of his status and friends. The worship of money was like a poison which trapped Pip in his dreams. Till Estella married Bentley Drummle, Pip had lost one half of his great expectations. Fortunately, he learned much more from Wemmick. He finally realized the nature of the bourgeoisie, that is the profit-hungry, money exclusively concerned and cunning bourgeoisie could not give him expectations. As Dickens had been brought up with middle-class expectations, he couldn’t forget the dream of being a gentleman all through his childhood. That is why he created the image of Pip to express his dream of childhood. When he started Great Expectations, he was already a national hero. He comes from humble beginnings, working as a child labor in a warehouse. He was involved in all aspects of English life: writing, acting, producing, and publishing magazines. Amid all this, however, Dickens’ private life had entered a dark period. Dickens had just separated from his wife two years earlier; there were rumors of an affair with a young actress in the newspaper. Dickens himself had risen to achieve greater expectations than only clerk’s boy could expect, but he had not found happiness. In Great Expectations, pip finally comes back to Joe. He was better educated that the bourgeois interpersonal relationship was based on money, while the ordinary working people would never think in terms of money. Although Dickens was himself a petty bourgeois who could not overstep the limits of his class, he began to recognize the darkness of bourgeois. In this novel, Dickens began to recognize that dirt and poverty and crime were not caused only by the depravity and evil of individuals but moved toward an understanding of the intricate network that dominating every major institution of society.
 Dickens portrayed many deserted children to show either his own experience or the attitude toward his times through children’s point of view. From the images of deserted children in Charles Dickens’ major novels, readers can observe the way of maturity of his character creations, as well as his art techniques.
2.2 Grotesque Character
Richard once said: “If got rid of the characters, the plot in Dickens’ novels would seem deficient even fragmented.” Dickens is specialized in describing characters. He also portrayed many grotesque characters of all shades. Such as Miss Havisham (Great Expectations), who imprisoned herself in the wedding ceremony for thirty years; Mrs. Pipchin (Dombey and Son), who lived in a house seemed like a monster’s residence; Quilp, who likes a devil in The Old Curiosity Shop. Little Dombey, who has a child age but an old appearance, etc. If one author could create one or two among a series of grotesque characters, he or she would be popularized. However, there are so many models in Dickens’ novels. That was why Dickens was so popular in his ages and among his people, as well as attracted by people in other nations. Here are three main characteristics which the grotesque characters possessed to expound his special artistic techniques.#p#分页标题#e#
2.2.1 Incompleteness of Grotesque
Incompleteness mainly refers to those people with parts missing on appearance. In Dickens’ novels, that incompleteness such as physical incompleteness, early mature and physical disability is the features of grotesque characters. First, taking Phil (Bleak House) as an example, he is a little man with a face all crushed together…on the speckled side of his face he has no eyebrow, and on the other side he has a bushy black one, which want of uniformity gives him a very singular and rather sinister appearance.” Here is another physical disability example in The old curiosity shop, Pipchin, who seemed like a manikin. These people always take incompleteness in physical and make inharmonic in appearance. A typical example for early mature is little Dombey, (Dombey and Son) who is oppressed by great expectation of his father.
    Son was very bald, and very red, and though (of course) an undeniably fine infant, somewhat crushed and spotty in his general effect, as yet. On the brow of Dombey, Time and his brother Care had set some marks... while the countenance of Son was crossed with a thousand little creases, which the same deceitful Time would take delight in smoothing out and wearing away with the flat part of his scythe, as a preparation of the surface for his deeper operations. (Charles, Dombey and Son, 1987:25)
Dickens described his appearance with many creases. He is just an infant, originally represented endless vitality, however, wrinkle represented senile and decay. Both complete contrary joined together on Dombey, then grotesque emerged.
2.2.2 Inhumanness of Grotesque
In Dickens’ novels, inhumanness means people who are lack of the traits as human beings or something weakened, while replaced by substances, machines even animals or monsters. People with such qualities always mixed in variety. They always made people uncomfortable. Here is a description in David Copperfield.
It was Miss Mudstone, who was arrived, and a gloomy-looking lady she was; dark, like her brother, whom she greatly resembled in face and voice; and with very heavy eyebrows, nearly meeting over her large nose, as if, being disabled by the wrongs of her sex from wearing whiskers, she had carried them to that account. She brought with her two uncompromising hard black boxes, with her initials on the lids in hard brass nails. When she paid the coachman she took her money out of a hard steel purse, and she kept the purse in a very jail of a bag, which hung upon her arm by a heavy chain, and shut up like a bite. (Charles, David Copperfield, 1990:65-66)
Miss Mudstone impressed people with dark hair and skin, no soft but like his younger brother –woman inside but man outside. Furthermore, her eyebrows seemed like moustache. That must be absurd. She carried something with black color and iron quality. To sum up, she was a woman lacked of traits as a woman, even as a human being.#p#分页标题#e#
Apart from Mudstone, whose characteristic replaced by substances, inhumanness is always embodied on animal and monster. Here is another example of Quip in The Old Curiosity Shop.  
The child was closely followed by an elderly man of remarkably hard features and forbidding aspect, and so low in stature as to be quite a dwarf, though his head and face were large enough for the body of a giant. His black eyes were restless, sly, and cunning...But what added most to the grotesque expression of his face was a ghastly smile, which, appearing to be the mere result of habit and to have no connection with any mirthful or complacent feeling, constantly revealed the few discolored fangs that were yet scattered in his mouth, and gave him the aspect of a panting dog. (Charles, The Old Curiosity Shop, 1998:167)
This image impressed inharmonic: the proportion between height and head; the mixture between abhorring expression and smile. It made people horror and disgusted. Meanwhile, such evil looked like a dog breathing with tongue extend, and some funny struck readers.
All in all, this is a feeling which mixed horror and absurdity brought from grotesque. Here, in addition a distorted man, Quilp has the appearance of dog, which is grafted by human being and animal together.
2.2.3 Token of Grotesque
Another feature of Dickens’ grotesque characters is token. Those grotesque characters are not only incompleteness appearance or inhumanness action but also with token meaning, such as the ugly and ferocious Mrs. Pipchin in The Old Curiosity Shop.
Forty years at least had elapsed since the Peruvian mines had been the death of Mr. Pipchin; but his relict still wore black bombazeen, of such a lustreless, deep, dead, sombre shade, that gas itself couldn't light her up after dark, and her presence was a quencher to any number of candles... She was such a bitter old lady, that one was tempted to believe there had been some mistake in the application of the Peruvian machinery, and that all her waters of gladness and milk of human kindness, had been pumped out dry, instead of the mines. (Charles, The Old Curiosity Shop, 1998:117)
Here the ugly appearance seemed as a token of ferocious inner world. In The Old Curiosity Shop, Mrs. Pipchin is not simply as a grotesque who brought absurdity and abomination, but as a token without love and true feeling which lead to degeneration and vicious.
When the characteristics of human beings mixed with other species, the combination between inharmonious factors must bring about grotesque. Although those characters made people odd and uncomfortable, however, they are not absurd and distrustable. This is a unique feature in Dickens’ characters. Compared with other novelists who used grotesque characters, Dickens’ novels was qualified without separation from practice.#p#分页标题#e#
2.3 Deviation of Tone
Deviation occurs when the tone that a writer uses is different from what the readers think according to the context. Here are three aspects to analyze Dickens’ deviation of tone.
2.3.1 Deviation of Conversational Tone
First, deviation appeared in title. The way in which one character addresses or designates another is an illuminating maker of tone. Title sometimes is used by Dickens not for indicating the status of a person, but for some dramatic effect: When Sikes is addressed by Fagin with a title, Mr. He instantly perceives its inappropriateness and recognizes Fagin’s malicious intent.
“Hush! Hush! Mr. Sikes,” said the Jew, trembling; “don’t speak so loud.” “None of your mistering,” replied the ruffian; “you always mean mischief when you come that. You know my name: out with it! I shan’t disgrace it when the time comes.”(Oliver Twist, Ch13)
Dickens embodied titles much more meaning especially in his novel Dombey and Son. An awareness of social implications of address is reflected in the scene when the heroine Florence corrects her maid Susan Nipper for an irreverent mention to the aristocratic Skettles family:
“Better late than never, dear Miss Floy,” said Susan, and I do say, that even a visit form them old Skettleses will be a Godsend. “It is very good of Sir Barnet and Lady Skettles, Susan,” returned Florence, with a mild correction of that young lady’s familiar mention of the family in question, “to repeat their invitation so kindly.”(Dombey and Son, Ch23)
Speech is sometimes over-formularity in depicting characters. It is generally true that to be polite, one has to be prolix and indirect: the propitiation of the hearer requires the ceremonies of respectful address, apology, circumlocution, hyperbole. (Leech&Short, 2001:312) Among Dickens’ characters, there is no lack of such kind of speakers. An example is given below to make it clear.
Mr. Carker, Mr. Dombey’s sinister manager, betrays his insincerity and hypocritical intensions by an extreme of politeness which borders on servility. He uses a lot of “pardon”s in his conversation to the people, who he thinks have a higher status. Here he is speaking to Florence:
“I beg pardon,” said Mr. Carker, “a thousand times! But I am going down tomorrow morning to Mr. Dombey, at Lamington, and if Miss Dombey can entrust me with any commission, need I say how very happy I shall be?”(Dombey and Son, Ch24)
Mr. Carker’s politeness is full of exaggeration. “I beg your pardon a thousand times” is not used by people in common conversation. So here the author gave readers a very picture of servility. In order to express his unctuous politeness to Miss Dombey, whom he thinks also has a higher status than him; the speaker shows his deference by the replacement of “you” with indirect third person address of “Miss Dombey” when speaking to her. This makes the words rather unnatural and ridiculous.#p#分页标题#e#
2.3.2 Defeated Expectation
Defeated expectation makes the readers feel a sense of frustration, or sometimes meaning is heightened or blurred by the deviation. It is a field as yet little explored, but much depend on the skill with which the writer manipulates the possibilities so the following expectations are defeated.
Arthur followed him up the staircase…into a dim bed-chamber, the floor of which had gradually so sunk and settle, that the fire placed was in a dell. (Little Dorrit, Ch2)
Here the readers will make their own response to them, based on the way in which they react to the defeat of regular linguistic expectation. Furthermore, the symbolism also defeats one’s expectations. Since the villainous prison turns out to be unremittingly dark and sordid, one expects the world outside to be pleasant by contrast. In fact, as readers have seen, Little Dorrit depicts an intolerable and inhuman landscape. Since the land is so unbearable, the sea can offer a smiling contrast, but it transpires that it is “too intensely blue to be looked at” The feeling of frustration generated here is the dominant mood of the narrative (painfully reflected, for instance, in the chapters “Nobody’s Weakness”, “Nobody’s Rival”, and “Nobody’s State of Mind”).
2.3.3 Understatement
Understatement refers to a statement that is not strong enough to express how well, bad, impressive something really is. Dickens sometimes used this device in his writings that appeared a little deviant, but had his specific purpose. A good example is the scene of Paul’s death in Dombey and Son, where Dickens could afford to use simple syntax and vocabulary (expressing the simple images of the child’s mind) in the utterance that understatement will merely intensify the readers’ sympathy:
Paul had never risen from his little bed. He lay there, listening to the noises in the street, quite tranquilly; not caring much how the time went, but watching it and watching everything about him with observing eyes. When the sunbeams struck into his room through the rustling blinds, and quivered on the opposite wall like golden water, he knew that evening was coming on, and that the sky was red and beautiful. As the reflection died away, and a gloom went creeping up the wall, he watched it deepen, deepen, deepen, into night. Then he thought how the long streets were dotted with lamps, and how the peaceful stars were shining overhead. His fancy had a strange tendency to wander to the river, which he knew was flowing through the great city; and now he thought how black it was and how deep it would look, reflecting the hosts of stars and more than all, how steadily it rolled away to meet the sea.(Dombey and Son,Ch16) 
The artlessness of the child’s mind is reflected partly in the repetitions “watching it and a watching everything” and “deepen, deepen, deepen”; in the use of common words, especially those with monosyllabic stems: he thought how the long streets were dotted with lamps”, “and now he thought how black it was”; and in the way the cohesion of the passage rests on the subject pronoun he and the conjunction and.#p#分页标题#e#
 At the very end, where there is unexpected addition of a third longer member to the parallelism of how clauses: “and more than all, how steadily it rolled away to meet the sea.” This is a good example how the internal deviation can gibe prominence to a piece of language which carried special significance. The sea is both the end-point of the movement form and Dickens’ often-iterated symbol of the “great beyond”. The syntactic coupling, the balancing of one construction against another parallel construction of similar form or similar length, brings to the passage a feeling that all is well: Paul is following the destiny which is ordained for him, and no agonizing can disturb the peace of his passing.
Tone can deeply affect readers. Defeated expectation makes readers feel a sense of frustration; on the contrary, the understatement can inspire readers, and arouse the mood. His techniques suited the Victorian fashion of emotional fiction and more importantly, they also reflect Dickens’ peculiar qualities of writing.
2.4 Exaggeration in Hard Times
On one hand, Hard Times is a realistic work; on the other hand, it manifested his illusion that is filled with emotion as a romantic work. Here are some descriptions in factories:
It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never got uncoiled... and where the piston of the steam-engine worked monotonously up and down, like the head of an elephant in a state of melancholy madness. (Charles, Hard Times, 1997:35)
In Dickens’ eyes, those inanimate soot and machine changed into a demon, which eats people around. He used exaggerating symbols to describe such a capitalism that is wrecked and oppressed the human nature, it showed Dickens’ abundant imagination. Furthermore, the exaggerations lay in his description of characters. He is good at catching the descriptions of actions, even a tag, as well as using exaggeration to depict repeatly. When depicting inanimateness, he always used anthropopathy ploy endowed the inanimateness with life; When depicting characters, he always use comparison which made the inanimateness as animateness endowed human an attribution to comprise others. Here is an example, Dickens used exaggeration to describe the appearance of Gradgrind.
The emphasis was helped by the speaker’s hair, which bristled on the skirts of his bald head, a plantation of firs to keep the wind from its shining surface, all covered with knobs, like the crust of a plum pie, as if the head had scarcely warehouse-room for the hard facts stored inside. The speaker’s obstinate carriage, square coat, square legs, square shoulders, -- nay, his very neckcloth, trained to take him by the throat with an unaccommodating grasp, like a stubborn fact.(Charles, Hard Times,1997:66)#p#分页标题#e#
Even the sunshine and the skin color are used by Dickens to depict his characters. Different skin colors represent different characters. Here is an excerpt below:
But, whereas the girl (Sissy) was so dark-eyed and dark-haired, that she seemed to receive a deeper and more lustrous color from the sun, when it shone upon her, the boy (Bitzer) was so light-eyed and light-haired that the self-same rays appeared to draw out of him what little color he ever possessed…His skin was so unwholesomely deficient in the natural tinge, that he looked as though, if he were cut, he would bleed white.(Charles, Hard Times,1997:201)
Dickens’ transformations between animateness and inanimateness as well as his portraits either for humanity or object made his creations sculpted in people’s mind.
2.5 The Spirit of Christmas
Charles Dickens probably had more influence on the way that people celebrate Christmas today than any single individual in human history. Dickens as a master of the spirit of Christmas, his work Christmas tales consists of A Christmas Carol (1843); The Chimes (1844); The Cricket on the Hearth (1845); The Battle of Life (1846) and The Haunted Man (1848). A Christmas Carol is taken as an example to illustrate Dickens’ Christmas Spirit.
2.5.1 Enlightenment to Scrooge
Scrooge is a man with mean spirit and cruel temper. In his heart, he thought Christmas is a farce, which is meaningless. What made his mind changed is just a dream. Dickens instilled the spirit of Christmas into Scrooge.
During sleep, he receives a chilling visitation from the ghost of his dead partner, Jacob Marley. As punishment for his greedy and self-serving life his spirit has been condemned with heavy chains. Marley hopes to save Scrooge from sharing the same fate. In the next three nights, Scrooge was visited by three spirits: the Ghost of Christmas Past takes Scrooge on a journey into the past to previous Christmases from the curmudgeon's earlier years. Scrooge revisits his childhood school days as well as his friends. He was deeply moved, sheds tears of regret before the phantom returns him to his bed; the Ghost of Christmas Present takes Scrooge to the Christmas as it will happen that year. Scrooge witnesses the large celebration for Christmas, which warms his heart. He finds the jovial gathering delightful and pleads with the spirit to stay until the very end of the festivities; the Ghost of Christmas Yet leads Scrooge to see his own death. He was shocked by his final fate. He awakens on Christmas morning and sends a giant Christmas turkey and attends Fred’s party.
The surprising change should be attributed to the spirit of Christmas, which gives great enlightenment to Scrooge.
2.5.2 Realization by Illusion
All stories in Christmas tales are of form of fairy tales or illusions. This is just conformed to the atmosphere in Christmas, and heightened the happy moments in western countries. It is said that at Christmas night, Santa Claus will bring children gifts, which they are eagerly to have during sleep. In Dickens’ novel the author similarly used illusion of the ghost as well as three spirits present as the most generous and precious gift-benevolence.#p#分页标题#e#
If readers pay attention to this novel, the attitude of Scrooge changed a lot –from cruelty and meanness to mild and warm-hearted man. All attributed to the spirit of Christmas that realized by illusion. In this novel, the design of the Hell set is great, with tortured faces carved, a now-lively and spry Marley comes to greet him, his movements indicates that this was his world and reality, whereas his appearance in the world of the living is only an insubstantial spirit. Three Christmas spirit presents all scenes that are just for him in reality. Dickens used ingenious illusions, which made Scrooge totally changed.
III. The Influence of Artistic Techniques on Dickens’ Successful Novels 
Charles Dickens is a master storyteller. His language could in a way be compared with Shakespeare’s. His humor and wit are inexhaustible. He is good at Character-portrayal, in the history of world literature; perhaps Dickens is the first one who threw tremendous energy into his creations of children. He used the image of children as one of his artistic techniques. In Oliver Twist, Dickens not only recalled his child labor’s life but also expressed his childhood want. David Copperfield is unique among Dickens’ works for its deeply personal tone; if not autobiography in fact, it is a history of Dickens’ emotional life. Hypocrites brought false moral and false love to little Pip in Great Expectations, showed the main stream of the Victorian countryside social circumstances, which as Dickens’ growing awareness of the darkness of bourgeois. From the images of deserted children in Charles Dickens’ major novels people can observe the way of maturity of his character creations, his art techniques and his view of his age. From Oliver Twist (1837-1838) to Great Expectations (1861), Dickens tried his best to take children (especially orphans) as the main characters in his novels and went on reflecting the life of Victorian Times through children’s point of view in almost 25 years. His creation of children characters had a close relationship with the social background and his personal experience; at the same time his works also influenced the society. With these unforgettable children characters in his works, Dickens is unique and immortal in the world literature. 
Another irreplaceable technique in Dickens’ novels is the employment of grotesque characters. Grotesque as an unique feature which deserved a high position to Dickens’ successful novels. Those mixed characters are contrasted to usual people met. But they are not amusement even distrustable. This is one significant feature-authenticity. Compare with other virtuosos, Hoffman etc. In his works, old woman changed into knocker. Gala, one character in Bulgakov’s novel is a siren at one moment and a mermaid in other times. Although Dickens’ characters are grotesque, they are not lack of authenticity, but actually live in his times.#p#分页标题#e#
Tone can deeply affect readers. Defeated expectation makes readers feel a sense of frustration; on the contrary, the understatement can inspire readers, and arouse the mood. Anyhow, no matter what kind of deviation is used, it makes Dickens’ works much deeper than the other contemporary writings. Though the devices appear once in a while, the caricature, which they help to form, is not equal to distorted delineation of the personages. Dickens’ deviate depictions are reflections of the reality, deriving people’s life from certain aspect of real human nature. From these illustrations of deviation, it must be said that Dickens ingeniously creates his own language, and skillfully manipulates it in his novels.
Dickens also employed exaggeration in his works, which was another aspect influenced his novels. He used exaggeration to expound a strong feeling both love and abomination. In his novels, those frontal characters always showed his dream, which were always not from practice; in contrast, the reversed characters were always felt authentic and unforgettable. Of course, it infected readers inevitably.
The spirit of Christmas had an astonishing power to influence a person. To Scrooge, he must throughout a picture, which emerged by three spirits from past, present to future and received the “education” from the Christmas spirit and the poor, to cast off numerous invisible shackles, which twist him, and to recover his nature. According to poor people’s attitude toward Christmas Day, as well as their happy celebration, People could clearly understand the spirit of Christmas of Dickens. The spirit of Christmas as an artistic technique in Dickens’s novels was not only for it was a story, which as an entertainment but also a dream which can hardly came true at that time. Dickens’ illusion was not practicable, but he used this ingenious spirit to appeal the authority that is caters to the poor.
Above all, Dickens’ novels are popular at that time as well as present. It must thank to such a master, who used those artistic techniques. Charles Dickens was a realistic writer in Victorian Age, who used an unique language to describe an unique aspect (darkness) which is contrast to the descriptions by others. Apart from the employment of deserted children and grotesque characters, he managed deviation of tone, even exaggeration as well as the elucidation of Christmas spirit to enrich his creations. Dickens’ works are considered as an epitome of 19th century of England, which is cater to the poor people and showed their expectation to get rid of oppress and poverty from capitalism. Even today, Dickens’ techniques are still deserved to be valued by researchers.
[1] Charles, Dickens. Little Dorrit. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1980.
[2] Charles, Dickens. Oliver Twist. Oxford: University Press, 1982.
[3] Charles, Dickens. Dombey and Son. USA: Oxford University Press, 1987.
[4] Charles, Dickens. David Copperfield. USA: Oxford University Pres, 1990
[5] Charles, Dickens. A Christmas Carol. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
[6] Charles, Dickens. Great Expectations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
[7] Charles, Dickens. Little Dorrit. Wordsworth Editions Ltd, 1996.1.
[8] Charles, Dickens. Hard Times. London and New York: Methuen, 1997.
[9] Charles, Dickens. The Old Curiosity Shop. London and New York: Methuen, 1998.
[10] Forster, John. The Life of Charles Dickens. Ed.J.W.T.(Ley) London:Cecil Palmer, 1928.
[11] Quirk, Randolph. Charles Dickens and Appropriate Language. Durham:University of Durham Press, 1959.
[12] Andrews Malcolm. Dickens and the Grown-up Child Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1994.
[13] [法]菲利普·汤姆森著,孙乃修译.《论怪诞》. 西宁:昆仑出版社,1992.
[14] 罗经国.《狄更斯的创作》. 辽宁:辽宁大学出版社,2001.
[15] 罗经国选编.《狄更斯评论集》. 上海:上海译文出版社,1981.
[16] 李维屏.《英国小说艺术史》. 上海:上海外语教育出版社, 2003.


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