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计算机的应用Computer-based Applications Assignment范文

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构建基于计算机的应用Building Computer-based Applications Assignment 

当今在工业上构建基于计算机应用的主要方法被称为结构分析与设计。这个方法在1970年代作为一种结构化程序设计技术的成果被映入。这个结构化系统开发方法已经被调整并在世界上应用了数年。但是在过去数年内,面向对象语言正在越来越受到公业机构和大学的欢迎和普及。随着这个趋势的持续,一个方法被发展用来帮助那些使用面向对象语言开发应用程序的程序员。

引言 INTRODUCTION 

OOAD策略方法的问题从一个对象的视角与功能的角度来看,这是传统的结构化开发方法的主要焦点。在过去的几年中越来越多地使用OOAD比传统的结构化开发方法已经蔓延着。随着新的和更先进的面向对象的语言被创建,似乎是一个更大的需要一个面向对象的方法来开发业务应用。然而,这是否需要更大的使用这种新的方法比传统的吗?我们将比较两种方法和它们的优点和缺点,以解决这个问题。The existing methodology used primarily in industry today in building computer-based applications is known as structured analysis and design. This methodology came into existence as a result of the structured programming techniques introduced in the 1970's. This structured systems development methodology (SDM) has been fine-tuned and used for many years in the real world. However, during the last several years object-oriented languages have become increasingly more popular and more widely used in industrial organizations as well as university institutions. As this trend continued a methodology was developed to assist the programmer with the development of applications using object-oriented languages. This methodology has become known as object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD).The OOAD strategy approaches the problem from an object perspective as opposed to a functional perspective, which is the primary focus of the traditional structured development methodology. During the last few years the increasing use of OOAD over the traditional structured development methodology has spread significantly. As newer and more sophisticated object-oriented languages are created, there appears to be an even greater need for an object-oriented approach to develop business applications. However, does this need warrant greater use of this new methodology over the traditional one? We will compare the two methodologies and their advantages and disadvantages in order to address this problem.

传统系统法系与设计 TRADITIONAL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN

The systems development life cycle (SDLC) or the structured systems analysis & design methodology (SSAD) is a framework of activities and tasks that need to be accomplished to develop an information system. This methodology as mentioned previously is called the waterfall model as each major phase of the methodology flows downward into the next phase (Wu and Wu, 1994). Consequently, this methodology is a strategy consisting of various techniques, tools, documentation and tasks that need to be integrated in order to develop the system. The SSAD is based on the concept of functional decomposition where the analyst breaks down the system into the basic processes that make it up and then breaks these down into smaller ones and so on until the analyst understands all the essential components of the system being investigated (Senn, 1989). The basic principles of the SSAD methodology can be summarized as follows:
     
This methodology requires that the user be involved from the beginning to the end of project development. The analyst will meet with the user regularly to resolve problems and validate the user's needs. This also requires that the analyst possess highly developed communication skills.
The first principle of SSAD is top down functional decomposition. Here the system is considered in its entirety where the analyst first tries to understand the key features of the system, ignoring the smaller details until later.
Next the scope of system is defined where the physical details of the existing system are analyzed. The analyst focuses on two objectives: what the new system should do and how it should do it.

REFERENCES:文献

Bahrami, A., Object-Oriented Systems Development, Irwin McGraw-Hill, Boston, Massachusetts, 1999.
Rob, M., "Issues of Structured vs. Object-Oriented Methodology of Systems Analysis and Design", Issues in Information Systems, Volume V (1), 2004, 275-280.
Rumbaugh, J., Blaha, M., Premerlani, W., Eddy, F., and Lorensen, W., Object-Oriented Modeling and Design, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1991.
Satzinger, J., Jackson, R., and Burd, S., Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process, Course Technology, Boston, Massachusetts, 2005.
Senn, J., Analysis and Design of Information Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, 1989.
Shah, V., Sivitanides, M., Martin, R., "Pitfalls of Object-Oriented Development", Business Quest A Journal of Applied Topics in Business and Economics, November 1997, www.westga.edu.
Shlaer, S., and Mellor, S., Object-Oriented Systems Analysis: Modeling the World in Data. Yourdon Press, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1988.
Sircar, S., Nerur, S., and Mahapatra, R., "Revolution or Evolution? A Comparison of Object-Oriented and Structured Systems Development Methods ", MIS Quarterly, Vol. 25 (4), 2001, 457-471.(责任编辑:anne)


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