返回首页

对人类社会研究的作业

时间:2016-02-24 10:22来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
人类社会的研究

社会学家研究人类社会。其主题包括人类的行为在不同的社会环境中,社会互动,社会机构和堕胎,社会的变化和发展(标志,范克里斯汀,史密斯和扩音器1999)。对于这个原因,失业是一个问题,社会学家研究。失业在社会各领域都有深远的影响。在年龄,种族,阶级,性别,种族,性别和残疾等领域的分层是普遍的就业和失业,失业造成进一步的隔离,这些已经分层的人。这篇文章将从功能和冲突理论的角度看失业问题,以及如何影响失业率的四大主要机构(家庭、教育、政府和健康)。它也将着重于卡尔马克思和埃米尔涂尔干和他们的贡献,社会学和功能主义和冲突理论。失业在他们的生活中几乎每个人都会影响到每个人,我们需要了解我们应该如何处理这个问题,这对整个社会都至关重要。
 
功能翻译理论
 
功能是一个不明确的术语,通常由正统的社会学家来定义的逻辑和社会地位的角色,机构和结构的生产和生产过剩的社会作为一个社会系统-如在家庭的功能是社会主义新社会成员(贝丝蚂蚁和瓦特,1999)。
 
功能主义者认为一切都服务于一个特定的功能,这些功能在我们的社会需要理解。每个人都有一个角色来填补这个功能性的社会,换句话说,我们需要有分层,所以每个人都有一个目的。功能主义是veryboundaried和广场内薄。对于这一理论,真正的工作,有需要是一个共识,其中的个人组成的社会,他们需要相信一切都是最好的利益,这种所谓的乌托邦。显然没有利益冲突。这不在现代这个时代似乎是不可能的,所以可以功能仍然被认为是一个似是而非的理论。它当然有它的优点,是的一切都有它的功能,但这些功能都是为某种程度的解释和改变。不幸的是,功能主义不能解释的变化除了在逐渐演化的方式。
 
人类社会的研究-The Study Of The Human Society 
 
Sociologists study human society. Their subject matter includes human behaviour in various social contexts, social interaction, social institutions and organisation, social change and development (Haralmbos, Van Krieken, Smith & Holborn 1999). For this reason, unemployment is an issue which sociologists delve. Unemployment has far reaching affects in all areas of society. Stratification in the areas of age, race, class, gender, ethnicity, sex and disability is rife amongst the employed and unemployed alike, unemployment creates further segregation amongst these already stratified people. This essay will look at unemployment from the functional and conflict theory perspective, as well how four main institutions (family,education, government and health) are affected by unemployment. It will also look at Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim and their contribution to sociology and the theory of functionalism and conflict. Unemployment affects almost everyone to some degree during their lives, the need to understand how we can deal with the issue is becoming critically important to society as a whole.
 
功能翻译理论-Functionalist Theory
 
Function is an unclear term, often used by orthodox sociologists to define the logical and social place of roles, institutions and structures in terms of the production and reproductionof a society as a social system - as in the idea that the function of the family is to socialise new members of society (Bessant & Watts, 1999).
 
Functionalists believe everything serves a specific function in our society and these functions need to be understood. Everyone has a role to fill in this functional society, in other words we need to have stratification so as everyone has a purpose. Functionalists are veryboundaried and thin within the square. For this theory to really work, there needs to be a consensus amongst the individuals that make up society, they need to believe everything is in the best interest of this so called utopia. There is obviously no conflict of interest. This does not seem possible in this modern age, so can functionalism still be considered a plausible theory. It does of course have its merits, yes everything does have its function, but these functions are up for a degree of interpretation and change. Unfortunately functionalism does not explain change except in a gradual evolutionary way.
 
冲突理论-Conflict Theory
 
Conflict theory is a body of theories including marxism, which claims that all social orders are fractured by social conflict, typically between classes and other groups, over control of valued resources including wealth, power and property (Bessant & Watts, 1999). Conflict theorists believe that conflict is the basis of social order and that a minority of people with power are able to impose their will over others. There is a conflict of interest, people have different goals and purpose. They will use whatever means to gain this, even to the detriment of others in their society. Those with more power and money have the ability to gain a higher level of services by the main institutions in our society (such as education and health), thus creating a greater level of stratification in society. This in turn creates more conflict as those who cannot get the services they need turn to deviant or dependant methods to gain the same baisc needs. Unfortunately it is a vicious circle which continues to breed contempt from both sides of the fence in our society.
 
Durkheim
 
Durkheim (1858-1917) was one of the original 'founding fathers' of positivist sociology (functional theory), his concern was how to preserve society. The basis for social order (how society hung together and worked over time) was not economic but moral for Durkheim, expressed in the type of solidarity that a society exhibited (Willis,1999).
 
Durkheim was particularly concerned to distinguish social facts, which he sometimes described as "states of the collective mind," from the forms these states assumed when manifested through private individual minds. This distinction is most obvious in cases of customs,moral and legal rights and religious beliefs etc.(责任编辑:anne)


------分隔符-------------------------------------
UK Thesis Base Contacts
推荐内容