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有效决策结构设计

时间:2016-05-04 11:45:42 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
1.  该小组是用一个下午以产生尽可能多的创意想法,并决定其中一个是最好的。小组中的一些管理者经常会不同意对方的意见,并且可能会互相批评对方的想法,但校长并不关心是否所有的管理员都会对他们最后的推荐信。描述一个团队决策结构,在这种情况下最有效。你的回答也应该解释为什么这种方法比其他形式的团队决策好。
 
1.The principal of a local school district has asked eight administrators to identify new revenue-generating uses of classrooms and related facilities between teaching semesters. The group is given one afternoon to generate as many creative ideas as possible and to decide which one of these is the best. Some administrators in the group often disagree with each other and might criticize each other's ideas, but the principal is not concerned whether all the administrators are committed to their final recommendation. Describe one team decision-making structure that would be most effective in this situation. Your answer should also explain why this method is better than other forms of team decision making. 
 
Effective decision-making structure design有效决策结构设计
有更好的决策可以说,通过影响决策的三个要素中的一个潜在的优越的决策,它可以被认为是有可能的
标准-作为集团的管理人员在这里是一个可能性,不同的管理人员将代表和他们的利益可以被纳入到决策过程中使用的标准。
原因/影响-包括个人与专业知识,我们倾向于增加更准确的因果假设(理论)的可能性,将在决策过程中使用。
Better decisions-It can be argued that group produce potentially superior decisions by affecting one of the three elements of decisions
Criteria- As group administrators here is a likelihood that different administrators will be represented and their interests can be incorporated into the criteria used in the decision process. 
Cause/Effect- By including individuals with specialized expertise, we tend to increase the likelihood that more accurate cause/effect assumptions (theory) will be used in the decision making process.
Alternatives- Groups tend to develop a greater number of potential options and more creative options.
The decision made by this method will be more satisfied by the administrators as they will consider other’s viewpoint objectively based on their own.
 
2.What is meant by the statement: 'Power does not flow to unknown people in the organization'? 
 
Power does not flow to unknown people in the organization , this is just as a dynamic process. Power is inclined to person when they begin to experience, in a practical way, the fluctuating, constantly changing nature of existence. They understand that everything has a timing and a pacing of its own. Instead of struggling to get they need, they relax into a situation. They follow their intuition and watch for feedback from life. We learn when to push and when to pull; when to speak and when to be silent; when to advance and when to retreat. They do our best in whatever they do, and they trust that what happens is supposed to happen. Then, free of impatience, guilt, and anxiety, they watch with pleasure as events unfold that are better than what we had conceived. #p#分页标题#e#
3.   The Director of Nursing at Smalltown General Hospital claims that several nurses are experiencing job burnout. Describe the three components of job burnout that should be evident from these nurses. Your description of each component should include an example related to nursing. Also, briefly identify two possible characteristics of nursing that might have contributed to this job burnout. 
 
Job burnout obviously come from anxiety. Anxiety is viewed as having two components—state anxiety, the temporary component which manifests when an individual perceives threatening demands or dangers, and trait anxiety, the more stable component which may be regarded as a personality characteristic.In a study of intensive care unit nurses, the investigators concluded that individuals high on state-anxiety were not only at risk for burnout, but also for making medical errors.In another study, higher trait-anxiety predicted psychological distress.In addition, relationships with other staff—coworkers, physicians, head nurses, other departments—were also predictors of psychological distress.
For the nursing, they need to take care of patients, and need to make patient satisfied, these two possible characteristics are obviously affected  this job burnout.
 
4.   Rather than producing a standard product or service for the marketplace, Protegé Engineering completes special projects for clients. These projects require between six months and two years to complete and demand highly specialized knowledge in engineering, production management and computer science. Most of the 600 employees working for Protegé Engineering have university degrees in these fields and a few have doctorates. Identify and describe the best organizational structure for Protegé Engineering and justify your recommendation. 
The strategic organizational structure that evolves in many companies is a matrix structure. In this model, the organization combines two types of structures---divisions organized according to their function (such as marketing or sales) and divisions organized according to the products they produce or the projects in which they specialize. Hitt et al notes that this type of organization is delicate because executives of each division stand to win or lose based on the incentives for representing their own interests versus incentives for collaborating (perhaps at the loss of their own power) with the leaders of other divisions across the diverse company. The profitability of the entire company depends on complex interactions among division managers with conflicting or competing interests, and long-term corporate performance depends on the center's successful and ongoing negotiation of competition.
 
5.   Your supervisor has been reading about self-leadership and is intrigued by the concept and wants to know more about it. Discuss how she can encourage self-leadership and which conditions would encourage self-leadership to be more likely to occur. #p#分页标题#e#
 
The whole idea of ‘self-leadership’ is a little unclear: there are generation gaps to consider; and leadership teams are unsure about how to manage the different age groups and the environment of this so-called self-leadership.Logic won’t change a belief, only a new belief will change an old belief. As a talent manager, it’s important to know what truths, beliefs and assumptions impact personal behavior and decisions. 
“energy, not time, is the fundamental currency for high performance”, and you should know force, quantity, quality and focus of your employees’ energy levels. Quantity refers to their physical stamina and endurance. Being mentally agile is the focus, having passion and purpose is the force. Having high energy can make your employees more productive and focused. In the long run, it’s important to remember that energy makes time more valuable.
 
6.   Describe the stages of appreciative inquiry and explain how it differs from traditional organizational change interventions.
 
Focusing on the things that aren't working, and think about how you can fix them. This is the conventional approach to problem-solving. In many cases it's the right one to use. However in others, all it does is bring you up to the same bland level as everyone else. Another approach is to shift to a positive perspective, look at the things that are working, and build on them. In some situations this can be very powerful because, by focusing on positives, you can build the unique strengths which bring real success. This is the premise behind "Appreciative Inquiry", a method of problem solving that was pioneered by David Cooperrider of Case Western Reserve University in the mid 1980s. To understand the basis of Appreciative Inquiry it is useful to look at the meaning of the two words in context.
 
 7.   You work at an advertising firm where a senior executive has suggested that advertising staff should rely more on e-mail to communicate with clients rather than frequently visiting them in person. The executive has even suggested that this proposal might increase creativity because clients could communicate their ideas to staff members more often than through personal visits. The reason for this recommendation is that it is expensive and time-consuming to visit clients. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the idea of using e-mail rather than personal visits to interact with clients. Be sure that your answer considers emotional contagion, media richness and other factors related to these two communication channels. 
 
Email is one of the important technological developments popular mailing tool. Email is easy to use, An email service helps manage our contacts, allows us to send mails quickly, helps maintain our mailing history and provides sufficient storage space. An email can be sent from any terminal (computer) in the world with Internet access.It’s with fast speed while personal vists spend many time driving or prepare other things, An email can be delivered instantly and almost anywhere across the globe. About the disadvantages, Emails when used to send unsolicited messages and unwanted advertisements create nuisance and are termed as spam.Viruses are computer programs which have the potential to harm computer systems. Viruses are known to copy themselves and further infect the computer system in question. #p#分页标题#e#
 
 
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