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本科经济学assignment作业:产业组织问题集

时间:2016-08-07 17:41:24 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
在中国的计划生育政策的光照下,中国家庭中大部分都只有一个孩子。因此,中国的父母给所有的爱,只有一个,由于中国传统文化,留下所有的财富,只有一个。在中国的社会问题上,流行的词都是“富二代”和“富三大”,都是躺在父母的财富上睡不好觉,没有工作,没有压力。他们的职责是享受生活,并从父母或家庭中传递财富。
在解决这个问题的解决方案中,社会团体可以帮助唯一的一个社会问题。原因是他们可以解决这个问题上的孤独。大多数人都拥挤在一起讨论,分享意见和一起玩。在计划生育政策问题的目的上,他们希望通过社会合作活动,帮助朋友在社会上与朋友分享社会合作活动。在合作的过程中,只有通过社会活动来克服他们的道德问题,在社会中。[1] Suppose Haier, the successful Chinese fridge manufacturer, sells its fridges through many different retailers in Hong Kong. Explain how a resale-price-maintenance (RPM) clause between Haier and its retailers would improve efficiency.
In economy, in the upper reaches of the market operators tend to limit the downstream market operators resale price. The manufacturer of a product often requires its dealers cannot sell below a certain price. Otherwise, dealers will sell low-cost to grab market share, and using the puerile way to earn more revenue. When dealers sell at low prices, retailers will have greater leeway to low-cost retail. The ultimate beneficiaries must be the consumer. However, this price competition between dealersis not what the manufacturer would like to see. Because once the price of a product habitually runs at low price in the market, the expected consumer price will be habitually reduced. This would allow manufacturers to lose the basis of its high-priced running. After the price war, dealers, often requiring manufacturers to lower ex-factory price, so that the dealers themselves to earn more money, thereby further weakening the manufacturer's profit margin. Thus, manufacturers tend to limit auto resale prices or minimum sale price, so that manufacturers, distributors, retailers operate on a fixed, orderly price.
 
[2] Describe how tie-in (the old-fashioned IBM computers + IBM punch cards) may have helped IBM price discriminate their customers. How would such a practice enhance social welfare? (Hints: Refer back to Chapter 16 of the book entitled ``Law's Order''.)
Tie in is to promote a product by selling with another product by using its label, packaging or other carriers. It markets through the distribution channels of the product itself. It comes with advertising messages to reach precise target audience. The biggest difference with tie in marketing and other marketing approach is that is does not rely on any such advertising newspapers, radio, television, Internet or other third-party media. It almost does not consume any additional energy, or need to establish specialized distribution channels. It will not cause any environmental pollution, and even improve the environment. Moreover, since the user with a marketing potential users and carriers of goods are highly consistent, this symbiotic media marketing model sales for the two commodities have a very effective role in promoting.Therefore, it is win-win to both sellers and consumers.#p#分页标题#e#
 
[3] Many big real estate developers in Hong Kong have their own property management companies. Their property management companies are usually the default property management companies for their own real estate projects (e.g., Company A builds Building X and assigns Property Management Company B, A's own subsidiary, as the management firm) Discuss whether such a vertical integration strategy is pro- or anti-competitive.
Vertical Integration is a company integrates products from raw materials to finished products, and finally to consumers through many stages. If a company originally responsible for a certain stage, when the company began producing its suppliers of raw materials supply in the past, or when the company began producing products in the past by the production of raw materials when it is vertical integration. Vertical integration refers to the merger of the two businesses at different levels in the production process, it is an increase or decrease its investment and distribution company for the level of control method outputs.The major advantages of vertical integration are, increase the company's sales for the product and suppliers of control efforts to reduce the uncertainty, for more complete information about the market and suppliers to get more profit.Though it also contains many defaults, such as high coordinate consuming, difficult to integrate, etc. It is anti-competitive by establishing market access obstacle.
 
[4] I have stressed in the class that ambiguity in law can be deadly. Please use your own words to explain the costs of coming up with ambiguous laws.
The law is a profession of words. By means of words contracts are created, statutes are enacted, and constitutions come into existence. Yet, in spite of all good intentions, the meanings of the words found in documents are not always clear and unequivocal. They may be capable of being understood in more ways than one. They many be doubtful or uncertain, and they may lend themselves to various interpretations by different individuals. When differences in understanding are irresolvable, the parties having an interest in what is meant may end up in litigation and ask the court to come up with its interpretation. In the eyes of the law, when this kind of situation arises, the contract or the legislative act contains ambiguity. In this way, the ambiguity could lead misunderstanding and/or loopholes.
 
[5] IBM has a mainframe computer-related antitrust allegation that was eventually dismissed. I copy-and-paste from Wikipedia: ``In 2009, Roger Bowler founded TurboHercules SAS, to commercialize the Hercules technology. In July, 2009, TurboHercules SAS asked IBM to license z/OS to its customers for use on systems sold by TurboHercules. IBM declined the company's request. In March, 2010, TurboHercules SAS filed a complaint with European Commission regulators, alleging that IBM infringed EU antitrust rules through its alleged tying of mainframe hardware to its mainframe operating system, and the EC opened a preliminary investigation.’’#p#分页标题#e#
 
Suppose IBM hired you as one of their economists. What arguments you would have raised in defending for IBM?
 
Hercules is an open source product. IBM is committed to making the system run on Intel (blog) and AMD's server and PC. This time, the complaints TurboHercules Founded last year, the attempt to commercialize Hercules open source software. The company said it has asked IBM to license its operating system users to use IBM, but IBM responded that it infringed on its patents.The whole system, including hardware and software are both the development results of IBM, including various patents of IBM. Therefore, the request of open the database and protocol is infringe of IBM’s patent. Furthermore, how to combine and sell hardware is also the best combination tested by its developer, IBM, it is unreasonable to require IBM to do component disassembly.
 
[6] We have talked about a logical flaw concerning the adjudication of RPM cases in class: RPM is welfare enhancing if it can solve the free-riding problem. Based on this theory, the court rules in favor of the use of RPM if a reasonable free-riding explanation can be given, and it rules against it if such an explanation cannot be given. What is the logical flaw here?
The logical flaw is the definition and determination of reasonable explanation is ambiguity. Because reasonable explanation is a subjective decision, there is no clear or precise way to judge if the explanation is reasonable or not. in spite of all good intentions, the meanings of the words found in documents are not always clear and unequivocal. They may be capable of being understood in more ways than one. They many be doubtful or uncertain, and they may lend themselves to various interpretations by different individuals, since ambiguity in law can be deadly.
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