Whether you are a concerned citizen, whether you are a social scientist, whether you are an economist or even a political analyst the point is as you look at the distribution of wealth and prosperity across the world, you are confronted with a question why are there rich countries and why are there poor countries. These are not only the concerns of the hard working professionals at the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) but also the concerns of a peasant who is trying to make a living in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
My essay will argue poor countries are poor not because they lack resources but because they lack effective governance institutions. More specifically, my focus is directed at issues related to Institutions and leadership in Africa. Africa is plagued with a variety of governance failures.
Poverty in Africa 非洲的贫困问题
Africa has the greatest wealth in terms of natural resources and the fastest growing economies in the world, yet Africa remains one of the poorest regions globally. Some political leaders in Africa are routinely called to account by international bodies for blatant violation of human rights of their citizens. For example, Charles Taylor of Liberia, Jean-Pierre Bemba of the DRC, Omar Al Bashir of Sudan have all been indicted by the international criminal court for crimes against humanity. The fact that external bodies have to take the initiative to call these leaders to account for their actions, is an indictment on the quality of governance in Africa. Political leadership in Africa has displayed an arrogant trend towards violating the very laws that leaders ought to be protecting.
Some parts of the continent are eternally in a state of civil war. Another factor that contributed to poverty in Africa is the continuation of civil war in some countries, for example, the Central African Republic and DRC to mention a few. These conflicts hinder economic growth where people looted, terrified and carnage one another and left the value of the rich African mineral resources like diamonds, uranium and oil prices depreciating drastically and making it vulnerable and giving easy access to the Chinese who bought the Central African Republic's oil field. (Sudan Vision newspaper)(责任编辑：BUG)