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时间:2015-09-18 13:44来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Womack和Jones(1996)定义一个精益企业的想法,作为一个群体,功能和操作同步,但合法的独立的公司。精益供应的主要思想是消除所有的浪费,包括时间,能够建立一个平准化排程(内勒等人,1999)。第一个精益生产是丰田生产系统(TPS)在工厂内的减少和消除浪费的关注(Ohno,1988)。尽管精益生产设施的供应链中的吞吐量时间减少,客户仍然会遇到显着的延迟交货的订单(Fisher,1997)。在对小企业的精益企业概念的应用进一步的工作是由hlstr M和Karlsson 发展的(1997)。Abernathy(2000)认为,精益零售商要求产品快速补货,出货量需要满足交货时间,精度和秩序的完整性。为了实现这一目标,我们应该使用条形码,装运标记和EDI。
The major successes of the fashion industry
Fashion retail is one the major fields that provide benefit for European countries, either in the last two years when they face to global economy shortage and improvement of the global opponents like China, India, Thailand, and Brazil with low labour cost. As these changes result in more jobs lost in fashion industry, new technologies and especially internet and e-commerce cause to new jobs in this field and facilitate communications between suppliers, manufacturers and also customers as end user in the supply chain. However, the revolution in communication provides more facilities for fashion companies and open new horizons to develop globally, but create new risks and challenges for them that need expert managers to cope with this risk by using variety of methods for best result and few changes in supply chain. This paper analyze the lean, agile and leagile supply paradigms for fashion retailers and present their application in some fashion companies to provide better solution for retailers.
Womack and Jones (1996) defined the idea of a lean enterprise, as a group of individuals, functions and operationally synchronized but legally separate companies. The main idea of lean supply is the elimination of all waste including time, to enable a level schedule to be established (Naylor et al., 1999). The first lean manufacturing was Toyota production system (TPS) with its focus on the reduction and elimination of waste within the factory (Ohno, 1988). Despite the presence of lean manufacturing facilities in the supply chain where throughput times were reduced, customers would still experience significant delays for delivery of their orders (Fisher, 1997). Further work on the application of the notion of the lean enterprise to small businesses was developed by hlstr m and Karlsson (1997). Abernathy (2000) argues that lean retailers require rapid replenishment of products, and shipments need to meet the delivery times, accuracy and order completeness. To achieve this, we should use bar codes, shipment marking and EDI.
The Iacocca Institute (1991) argued that an enterprise could benefit from an environment of rapid and unpredictable change, with an agile manner. Enterprises needed to find an effective response to a highly competitive and constantly changing business environment. Hiebelar et al. (1998) developed the agile operation with minimal lead times to be able to service volatile consumer demand with high level availability. The agile supply chain has a number of distinguishing features (Harrison et al., 1999):
* Market sensitive with the ability to respond to real time changes in demand,
* Capacity capability for organizations to react to volatile fluctuations in demand,
* Use of IT to share data between buyers and suppliers is crucial for agile supply.
This will improve visibility of requirements and reduce the stock amount, held in anticipation of predicted and often distorted demand (Hewitt, 1999). Shared information between partners is necessary to sustain the extended enterprise, where collaborative alliances support the exchange of information to enable such activities as common systems and joint product development.
Childerhouse and Towill (2000) argue that the lean principles are appropriate for commodity products with predictable demand and agile principles are relevant for innovative products unpredictable demand.
Leagile is the result of combination of lean and agile approaches at a decoupling point for optimal supply chain management. Mason-Jones et al. (2000) argue that, from the decoupling point in the supply chain, agility will be used downstream and leanness upstream. Thus, leagile enables cost effectiveness of the upstream chain and high service levels in the downstream chain of a volatile marketplace. However, Van Hoek (2000) argues that although a leagile approach may work in an operational sense, it makes no sense to challenge the concept of agility, as it has to fit with an agile approach in order to be applied properly.
时尚供应链-Fashion Supply Chain
The supply chain in the textiles industry is complex. Often the supply chain is involved with a number of parties (Jones, 2002). Consequently, it requires careful management, in order to reduce lead times and achieve quick response, highlighting the need to use an approach such as agility.
Deal with manufacturers, with centralized buying and considerable negotiation on prices, delivery schedules and quality, is a common practice for retailers (Bruce and Moger, 1999). However, Popp (2000) suggests that, sometimes an import or export agency is an intermediary figure within the chain. The addition of the intermediary occurs by increasing globalization within the industry. Globalization of the textile and clothing supply chain is increased, from sourcing components from overseas to moving manufacturing to countries with lower labor costs (Jones, 2002). Fashion industry is characterized by a number of factors: short lifecycle, low predictability, high volatility, and high impulse purchase (Fernie and Sparks, 1998).
Relationship management encompasses management and building of partnerships between different parties within the chain (Ford, 1980; Buttle, 1996). According to literature, collaborative relationships and partnerships are described as basic situations, and provide benefit for all parties (Wong, 1999; Dossenbach, 1999; Bowen, 2000; Harland, 1996; Lamming, 1996; Bidault and Cummings, 1994; Valsamakis and Groves, 1996). However, in many situations, this view is questionable. For example, the textiles industry tends to be dominated by large, powerful high-street retailers with multiple or international outlets, at the end of the chain. Further, the manufacturing sector is consists of large numbers of small companies with a limited amount of power (Werner Stengg, 2001; Key Note, 1996; Towers, 2000). Although it is questionable whether partnerships, provides benefits for all parties or means that, for push down prices, retail sector exert power over the smaller suppliers (Bhamra et al., 1998). With the improvement of globalization and achieving further profits through reduced purchase prices, partnering between organizations has move away (Jones, 2000).
A number of strategies have been used to improve supply chain management of fashion industry, including quick response and accurate response (Chandra and Kumar, 2000). JIT (just-in-time) in textiles and clothing is the delivery of finished goods through supply chain. Bhamra et al. (1998) highlight that to react to the increasing number of imports and levels of overseas sourcing, fashion supply needs to concentrate on quick response methods such as reduced levels of stock within the supply chain, flexible delivery through domestic sourcing, and increased net margins.
The lean, agile and leagile tries to reduce lead times with supply all effectively sequence and manage the manufacturing process. To achieve this, manufactures should improve customer order demand management and reduce wasteful activities. This is crucial because of a finite amount of available resource in enterprises. Consequently, for scheduling control of production, we should focus against wastage in manufacturing and supply. This is particularly relevant to fashion industry, because of increased competition and compounded with small businesses with less resource available.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Lean & Agile
Regarding to the fashion supply chain and features of Lean and Agile supply, some of these features consider as advantages and the others consider as disadvantages.
As you can see in table 1, the first 3 characteristics are essential for these two methods and also for the fashion supply chain, therefore these could be consider as 3 main advantages of both methods.
Eliminate Muda: by taking the minimum reasonable inventory (MRI) in to account; we can see that in an agile system, have to be a careful consideration of stock and/or capacity requirements to ensure the supply chain is robust to changes in the end users' requirements. Thus this feature could be an advantage of agile for fashion supply; but from the view of eliminating of all waste, this would be an advantage feature of lean for fashion supply.
Rapid Reconfiguration: In lean method, it is highly desirable, but not as essential as with agile manufacturing, because it is needed a certain amount of leeway with respect to the production schedule and the forewarning of product changes which is considered as a prerequisite for fashion supply, but in agile method, it is an advantage feature.
Robustness: Fashion supply not only should withstand variations and disturbances, but also can use these fluctuations to maximize their profit, so this feature is an advantage of Agile and disadvantage of lean.
Smooth Demand / Level Scheduling: In fashion supply where the end user demand is beyond the control of the supply chain, if is not possible to implement lean supply with the end-user interface, so either this is a disadvantage feature for lean and advantage feature for agile.
Table 1. Different characteristics of leanness and agility in fashion supply
Comparison of Lean & Agile
The paradigm will depend upon the requirements of the customer at any point of supply chain. Here the customer is the next direct receiver of the material in the supply chain. The different application of agility and leanness with reference to these last two characteristics is summarized in Figure 1.
The darker areas on Figure 1 are willing to be lean and the lighter areas to be agile. The major factor is whether there is a demand for variability in the production rate. If there are a wide variety of products an agile supply chain will be able to switch between the products easily. If there is a wide range of products then the demand willing to become more variable at different level.
Supply Risks
Supply chain risk management is important because of the following features:
* Focus on core competencies, increase the dependency of companies,
* Outsourcing the products and services,
* ICT usage cause to disappear the geographical boundaries,
* Partnerships,
* Disruptions, because of natural calamities and terrorist attacks,
* Reduction of supplier base or even single sourcing.
* Volatile economy and dependent to fuel prices.
Risks cannot be completely eliminated from supply chains but strategies can be developed to manage the. Some of the variables related to risks that would help alleviate risks in a supply chain are shown below:
Information sharing
Free exchanges of information which starts with the product development stage and continue with the mature and end-of-life phases of the product life cycle is highly effective in reducing the risks of inventories, obsolescence and supplier failure (Lee et al., 1997; Lee, 2002). Internet and e-commerce provide opportunities for supply chain to transfer information in real time with least transaction cost and global reach (Zeng and Pathak, 2003) resulting in considerable reduction in distribution and coordination costs (Koh and Nam, 2005).(责任编辑:charlie)

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