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国际关系课程essay:从北大西洋公约组织谈国际合作

时间:2015-09-01 11:46来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
国际关系课程essay:从北大西洋公约组织谈国际合作
 
在1999年,北大西洋公约组织新增加了三位成员,由此现在拥有十九位成员国家。虽然大多数人把北约组织当做有利于增强自身未来实力和信誉的组织,也有人认为它将会进一步导致国防预算的共享和资源配置效率的开发。人们认为,由于世界变得越来越关联紧密,像北约和联合国等组织会加入越来越多的成员。人们担心,这种扩展将会导致利用不断增长的可用性组织,就比如北约组织提供的公共资源而出现搭便车的问题。还有一种情况就是成员国在生产团体中给他们带来的好处比在实际国家中更多,更方便和放心。政治家就是一个团体的例子,它可以从国家合作中大大受益。因为它是一种工具,它可以帮助他们取得连任。
 
第一次真正的关注联盟学的是奥尔森和理查德泽科豪泽在他们1998年的著作中。
 
NATO and International Collaboration
 
The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) expanded by three new members in 1999 and thus now has nineteen members. Although most people view this to be a benefit for the future of NATO as it should enhance their strength and credibility there are those who view that it will lead to further exploitation in defence budget sharing and an allocative efficiency. It is thought that due to issues such as Globalisation the world is becoming more interlinked with organisations such as NATO and the UN comprising of more and more members. It is feared that this expansion will lead to problems with free riders taking advantage of the ever-increasing availability of the public goods offered by organisations such as NATO. There is also a case that producer groups within member countries benefit more than the actual nation states as the benefits to them are much more assured and accessible. Politicians are an example of a group, which can benefit greatly from international collaboration, as it is a tool, which can help them, gain re-election.
 
The first real concerns over the economics of alliances were raised in Mancur Olson and Richard Zeckhauser their writings in 1966. This raises the point that in international institutions such as NATO the smaller allies are relying on the larger allies to pay the vast amount of the defence budget and thus free riding, this became known as the exploitation hypothesis. Sandler and Hartley point out a clear example of this exploitation, as in 1970 the USA contributed 75% on NATO’s defence spending with the next closest allies which included the UK, France and Germany only contributing 6%. The exploitation becomes evident when you discover that the USA only received 35% of NATO’s defence benefits. Olson and Zeckhauser felt that the NATO members would never be able to gain allocative efficiency under the system they were using for defence contributions.(责任编辑:BUG)


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