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集中差异化战略Business Essay

时间:2015-09-03 12:55来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
约翰·琼斯举措的商业文章
 
这篇报告的目的是分析约翰·琼斯在书《麻烦终结者》中的的举措和他的举措对于Kwakumey Tableware 公司的影响。这篇文章概述了公司如何在1996年对抗1989年产生的不稳定局势。这篇文章中举例的那些评估,发现,和建议都是作者在那样的环境下通过观察得出的。
 
这篇文章介绍了对于企业的一些观点,阐述了企业的现状,遭遇的问题,并针对几年前企业遭遇挑战的情况提出了解决方法。一开始就对公司进行了批判分析,弄清了企业的竞争地位,剖析了它的内部功能,资源和可能影响到产业的外部因素。分析方法包括战略的使用和分析工具例如SWOT,波特的五种力量框架,资源审计,能力和利益相关者的分析。这些评估结果将有助于选择正确的战略,产生理想的结果。
 
此外,这篇文章还详细说明了之前被提议的集中差异化战略的特点。Kwakumey Tableware 公司采用该战略来改变和巩固自己的竞争地位和产业优势。文章也回答了企业面临的问题和挑战,针对经营和谋划方面的战略改变,提出了解决和管理这些的有效途径。总之,战略控制系统被开发出来用于解决那些可以抑制改革的因素。最后,文章为公司提出建议,帮助其顺应不断变化着的现代商业趋势,抵挡动荡环境的冲击。
 
Actions Raised By John Jones Business Essay
 
The purpose of this report is to examine the actions raised by John Jones and its implications on Kwakumey Tableware in his book Troubleshooter. The case outlines the present case of the business in 1996 as against its precarious state in 1989. The assessment, findings and recommendations adduced in this report are made in the context of observations made by the author.
 
The report covers a review of the business, its current situation and problems being encountered and the proposed solution devised which addressed the challenges it faced several years ago. It begins with a critical environmental analysis of Kwakumey Tableware to ascertain its competitive business position and know its internal capabilities and resources and the external factors that may influence its industry. Method of analysis includes the use of strategic and analytical tools such as SWOT, Porter's Five Force Framework, Resource Audit, Capability and Stakeholder Analyses. The outcome of these evaluations will aid in the selection of the right strategic options and desired outcomes.
 
Moreover, the report defines the main features of the proposed focused differentiation strategy to be adopted by Kwakumey Tableware to change and consolidate its competitive position and advantage in the industry. It also answers the issues and challenges facing the business and prescribes effective ways of approaching and managing the process of strategic change on its operations and premises. Again, strategic control systems are developed to address factors that may inhibit the change.
 
Subsequently, the report seeks to make recommendations for the company to help it meet the changing trends of modern business and withstand its turbulent environment. Recommendations outlined include:
 
improving the average collection period for accounts receivable·
 
improving/increasing inventory turnover·
 
reducing prepayments and perhaps increasing inventory levels
 
Finally, the report acknowledges that certain vital concepts were not investigated due to some limitations and lack of details from the book. Some of the limitations include:
 
forecasting figures are not provided nature and type of company is not known nor the current economic conditions data limitations as not enough information is provided or enough detail i.e. monthly details not known results are based on past performances not present
 
简介-Introduction
 
Kwakumey Group is a large Ghanaian family-run pottery business founded in 1929. It is currently managed by three Kwaku brothers - Michael, Stephen and Andrew - whose grandfather established it. The business which employs 500 persons has three divisions namely the hotelware division, mug making factory and mass-market tableware division.
 
The case study recounts how the group in 1989 acquired the services of John Jones to carefully analyse its operations and outline punitive actions to be taken. Although the hotelware division racked in profits, the study showed the tableware section faced major problems with sales, personnel, costs and advancement. He therefore prescribed changes and solutions which were implemented and proved successful on his next visit in 1996.
 
问题的定义-Problem Definition
 
Kwakumey Tableware faced major problems with its operations which affected the effective running of the business. This section was established to produce low-cost ceramics dishware for the large end of market tableware. However, it showed a steady decrease over a ten year period with a low 2% in 1989 which affected its sale forecast of a least 10% per annum. These led to an increase in both production and labour cost. Also, the brothers had run a conservative investment policy leading to zero debts. This practice was inhibiting capital spending in the factory especially in the areas of designs and automations. Lastly, the three brothers were faced with the challenge of seeding control of the day-to-day management of the entire business and taking oversight roles.
 
建议了一个解决方法-Proposing a Solution
 
Moving on from this current condition and reverse the decline in costs, the Kwakumey Tableware had to initiate a thorough study into its operations. After the study done by John Jones, he recommended solutions to address the prevailing pressing needs of the division. Firstly, he analysed the limitations of supplying low-margin tableware to the mass market and suggested moving up-market to deliver specific ware to a focused group as an alternative to increase profits.
 
Furthermore, there was also the need to investigate and decide how to reduce production and labour cost, make right investments and devise a marketing plan to keep the business profitable. John Jones advised the three brothers to distance themselves from the daily tasks of management and take on supervisory roles of setting strategic plans, objectives and decisions for their managers. Similarly, his aim was to change the entrenched organizational culture and thinking that existed in the business.
 
2:KWAKUMEY TABLEWARE的环境分析-2: ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS OF KWAKUMEY TABLEWARE
 
An extensive environmental analysis is carried out to assess the company itself, its market and evaluate its competitive environment and strategic position in its industry. It seeks to satisfy the key characteristics identified by Johnson et al (2008) in their definition of strategy, namely: direction; markets; long term; advantage; resources and competence; environment and stakeholders.
 
Kwakumey Tableware operates within the pottery industry. An audit is carried out to examine the environment of the business externally - opportunities and threats, competitive forces and internally - strengths and weaknesses and its functional areas including marketing, finance, production and operations, research and development, and organizational culture and structure.
 
SWOT Analysis
 
SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. This technique is used extensively in strategic planning to identify strategic factors for a specific company through an audit of both the internal resources - strengths and weaknesses and external situations - opportunities and threats. Internal strengths and external opportunities reduce the strength of competitive forces, while internal weaknesses and external threats increase the strength of the competitive forces.
 
Strengths
 
The strengths show the important abilities and resources of the company and clearly give it competitive advantages ahead of its competitors. Kwakumey Tableware possesses a modern and efficient factory capable of producing high-quality products. The presence of the other divisions responsible for hotelware and mugs also ensured the continuous and abundant raw materials. There is also the advantage of knowledge transfer between these divisions which adds to the rich experience, expertise and technical know-how with the entire Group.
 
Additional, the business has strong financial viability. It operated a sound finance policy with zero debts indicative of sales made to the tune of ₵20million in 1989. This shows its profitability and the ability to invest and expand at any given opportunity. Kwakumey Tableware employed the services of competent and skilled mangers to handle its core business to control the running of the business.
 
Weaknesses
 
Weaknesses also referred to as competitive disadvantages, shows poorly how the company operates in contrast with its competitors which in effect makes it more vulnerable to its industry competitive forces. Though Kwakumey Tableware is strong financially, it does have weaknesses too opening avenues for competition. The company particularly its owners are unprepared for advanced technology and value-added designs. Currently, it only offers two-colour designs when there is an availability to invest in multi-colour machinery and automate many of its manual processes.
 
Moreover, it runs high labour and production costs due to the hiring of a large but unskilled work force and few or less efficient kilns and equipment. Labour alone accounts for 40% of total cost, coupled with the provision of raw materials and energy rendering the entire operations impossible of achieving high profits. The business also lacked brand awareness, quality recognition and an understanding of the market. Kwakumey Tableware produced largely for price-sensitive consumers but even failed to satisfy those in the sub-region. After several decades of operation, it has just realised to introduce "Porter" - a medium-priced brand - to satisfy another niche in the market.
 
Opportunities
 
Opportunities are factors to the company that offers potential to reach market leadership and develop core competencies and unique resources. It gives an indication as to which aspects when fully utilised and successful leads to competitive advantage thereby lowering the effect of competitive forces.
 
Threats
 
Porter's Five Forces of Competition
 
The main purpose of this model is to analyse industry attractiveness in order to forecast industry profitability. Porter claims that there are essentially five forces which determine the underlying structure of an industry i.e. rivalry between existing players, the bargaining power of buyers, the bargaining power of suppliers, the threat of new entrants into the business and the threat of substitute products. Each can have a positive or negative effect on an industry structure by making it either more or less competitive. By examining each force and the balance between them, it is possible to determine the overall level of competition and therefore the overall attractiveness of the industry. The collective strength of the forces determines the ultimate profit potential in the industry.
 
Every company should already know what the average profitability of its industry is and how that has been changing over time. The model analyses and determines industry attractiveness in order to forecast industry profitability.
 
Resource Audit
 
The tool is used to analyse and have an internal view and understanding of Kwakumey Tableware. This analysis is purely based on (1) valuable tangible resources, (2) intangible assets and (3) unique organisational capabilities of the business (Collis and Montgomery, 2008).
 
According to Barney (1991), the major attributes of a firm's resource that creates continuous competitive advantage are: (1) valuable, having the ability to make use of opportunities and nullify threats; (2) rare, difficult to find in the industry, (3) imperfectly imitable, not easy to copy or imitate and (4) non-substitutable, difficult to replace.
 
Physical
 
The assets to be analysed are Physical, Finance and Human resources whilst the intangible assets are obtained from its Operations, Research and Development, Marketing and Sales
 
Tangible resources are the easiest to identify and evaluate: financial resources and physical assets are identifies and valued in the firm's financial statements.
 
ble
 
Intangible resources are largely invisible, but over time become more important to the firm than tangible assets because they can be a main source for a competitive advantage. Such intangible recourses include reputational assets (brands, image, etc.) and technological assets (proprietary technology and know-how).
 
 
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A study conducted by Prasad (2008) confirms that investments in technology bring innumerable intangible benefits and value creation to organization in Fiji, a developing economy.
 
Findings from a research (Liang et al., 2010) indicate that technology resources increase both internal and external capabilities thereby improving efficiency and performance but it is external capabilities that affect financial performance.
 
Organizational reputation is an intangible resource, representing an overall assessment of the firm's current assets, position and expected future performance (Teece, Pisano and Shuen, 1997: 521). As a core resource, organizational reputation could be a major factor in gaining a competitive advantage and fortifying the organization's financial position because it is difficult for competitors to match the prestige and esteem created by reputation (Hall, 1992: 138).
 
The human resource of an organization forms the basis for the formulation of a competitive strategy (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 2002).
 
Human resources or human capital are the productive services human beings offer the firm in terms of their skills, knowledge, reasoning, and decision-making abilities.
 
Structural Analysis
 
The analysis performed seeks to evaluate the current organizational structure that exists in Kwakumey Tableware. Kwakumey Tableware is managed and directed by three brothers who are also members of the executive board. There is one non-executive board member who chairs the board and spends a day or two per month on the company. The company has two senior managers in charge of Manufacturing and Marketing and other middle managers. It further employs 500 people spread across the three divisions of the entire Kwakumey Group.
 
Until the findings by John Jones, Kwakumey Tableware had a mechanised hierarchical organizational structure where entire operations and management were left in the hands of the three brothers who served as directors, shareholders and managers.
 
Executive Committee
 
Shareholders
 
Directors
 
Manufacturing
 
Director
 
Marketing
 
Director
 
Managers and Supervisors
 
Work or labour force
 
Executive Management
 
Senior Management
 
Middle Management
 
Junior Staff
 
Cultural Analysis
 
Technology is deployed for one offour reasons: 1) better service, 2) better data, 3)cost savings, and 4) improved efficiency. Don'texpect cost savings unless they are explicitly designed into the implementation, and explicitly
reduce some cost factor: people, paper, time, etc.Cost savings won't materialize without a concrete action to get the cost out.
 
The stakeholder analysis Business is about creating value for all those engaged in it, each of whom possess interests that vary considerably e.g. shareholders (whose goal is profit), top management (whose goals include salary, perks, prestige and power), and employees who are interested in pay, working conditions, and job security). External stakeholders include creditors, customers, unions, local communities, government, suppliers, competitors, public interest groups. All of these have important interests9. The stakeholder therefore is a key component of any business and so the ability to manage the needs and expectations of the group of people most heavily associated with the industry is a necessity. Page 5 of 8
 
The purpose of stakeholder analysis is to determine the assumptions the various stakeholder groups make about an industry. Some will support the industry and as a result create opportunities, while others will resist and present threats. Hence the necessity to carry out an analysis of stakeholder needs once a strategy has been agreed or is being implemented10. The task is to determine each stakeholders assumptions both supporting and resisting, and to place each on a grid (Figure 4), evaluating the importance of each assumption on the strategy and the extent of certainty supporting it. A scale of 0 to 10 can be used for both criteria, with 0 representing low importance and low certainty and 10 representing high importance and high certainty.
 
For a detailed description of selected units, see Appendix-II.
 
(1) Single Family Ownership Units
 
Majority of units in this industry are owned by single families, where all the members have a task
 
assigned to them. A typical feature of these units and also others is that majority of owners and
 
workers belong to potter's community who have been in the business of crafting earthenware for
 
domestic use for centuries.
 
In the villages and as well in cities, these units are usually located in the residence of owners, occupy
 
a small area including one kiln and on the average number of workers varies between 15-20 including
 
family members.
 
3:KWAKUMEY TABLEWARE公司被提议战略的主要特点-3: MAIN FEATURES OF KWAKUMEY TABLEWARE'S PROPOSED STRATEGY
 
Wright (1987, cited in Porter 1980) talks about Michael Porter's three generic strategies viz.: cost leadership, differentiation, and focus strategies. Cost leadership involves the production of goods or services at very low per-unit costs for price-sensitive consumers. Differentiation lays emphasis on the production of unique industry-wide and are addressed to many buyers who are relatively price-insensitive. Focus strategy adverts to products which fulfill the needs of particular buyers who are fewer in number in an industry. That is, ordinarily, while the cost leadership and differentiation strategies attempt to address a whole industry, the focus strategy addresses specific and smaller clusters of buyers within an industry.
 
3.1 Value Addition versus Cost Cutting
 
From the case study, the Kwakumey brothers faced with problems contemplated of having to:
 
Cut costs and go for volume at the lower end of the market, and
 
Build on a proposed new medium-priced ranged with emphasis on increased margins.
 
Currently, the business practised the former which involved the supply of a low-margin product for the large end of the market. This is a focused strategy based on lower cost. It is targeted towards satisfying the large price-sensitive buyer group with the lowest costs in the industry in order to outperform its competitors.
 
However, John Jones suggests the latter which includes moving up-market to a specific market and selling more expensive products for increased profits. This is a focused strategy based on differentiation. From the case study, it is seen to be a strategy successfully incorporated to great effect and benefits.
 
3.2 Main Features of Focused Differentiation Strategy
 
Approaches to differentiation include developing unique brand images, unique technology, unique features, unique channels, unique customer service or the like. In other words, the key to differentiation is obtaining an advantage that is readily perceived by the consumer. Increased costs can usually be passed on to the buyers due to the uniqueness of the product attributes.
 
- concentrating on a narrow buyer segment and outcompeting rivals by offering niche members customized attributes that meet their tastes and requirements better than rivals' product.
 
The provision of value to customers through the unique product features and characteristics. Kwakumey Tableware produces five or six new different designs with varying colouring per annum. This is expedient so as to satisfy the distinctive and peculiar needs and preferences of consumers in their niche market.
 
The use of state-of-the-art machinery and the latest technology to produce differentiated products which are difficult to be imitated by competitors. It generates continuous improvement and innovation as can be seen in Kwakumey Tableware developing a core competency in the technology that produces the unique resource range of Mille Darko branded products.
 
It requires investments in automated machinery, constant upgrading of existing machinery and a trained and skilled workforce in the industry. From the case study, Kwakumey Table invested ₵1.5million on mechanization and new designs. It further invested in a new dust pressing unit and multi-colour total transfer machines. Again, the design department have acquired the requisite technical expertise necessary in producing new and attractive designs.
 
Premium prices are charged for differentiated products to cater for production costs. It also enables the company to increase its earnings and stay ahead of competition. This has contributed largely to the increased sales, profits and earnings per share of the entire Group.
 
This strategy enables business to build global brands and corporate reputation due to the high quality and value of their differentiated product or service from production to packaging and transport. Such businesses are open to research and scientific development.(责任编辑:cxj)


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