返回首页

印度的公司治理和金融丑闻

时间:2016-01-22 14:20:34 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

印度的公司治理和金融丑闻
Corporate Governance And Financial Scandals In India


本研究将确定在印度的公司治理,其失败的原因,导致印度的金融丑闻。作为大公司,安然公司和世通公司,非法经营披露;全世界的商业开始冲击。世界上许多其他公司受到这种攻击像在意大利帕玛拉特,都是他们的公司治理问题。这表明,整个世界在他们的公司治理上是有问题的。不同于发达国家,发展中国家公司治理的主要问题在这些丑闻发生与公司治理和经济发展有关,因为这有助于金融体系的发展导致的增长和减少贫困。因此研究告诉我们为什么会有公司治理失败在大型组织和解释了影响公司治理的因素,如所有权结构,公司董事会结构、财务结构等。

公司治理是一个广泛的术语,是指规则、流程、职责和权限共享企业的参与者。基本上说,投资者如何保证他们的投资回报。这是经理的决策委员会的工作职责为了最大化投资者财富。Acc,Keasey等人。(2005)公司治理的方法,“公司治理有两个要求,微观层面和宏观层面。在微观层面上它需要确保公司生产组织,追求其目标函数。因此,如果我们遵循传统的英美公司作为设备的概念进一步owner-shareholders的福祉,良好的治理是一种确保采取的决策和实现股东价值的追求。公司治理在宏观水平上,在美国联邦储备理事会(美联储,fed)主席艾伦·格林斯潘(Alan Greenspan)的话说,‘已经进化到更有效地促进国家的储蓄分配最有效利用。’”

INTRODUCTION:——介绍

This research will identify Corporate Governance in India and the reasons of its failures that lead to the financial scandals in India. As the big companies’, Enron and WorldCom, illegal operations were disclosed; the world’s business came into shock. Many other companies in the world came under this attack like Parmalat in Italy, all had problems in their corporate governance. This showed that the whole world had a problem in their corporate governance. Unlike the developed countries, the developing countries had corporate governance as the main issue far before these scandals took place as corporate governance and the economic development are linked as this helps in development of financial system which results in increase of growth and reduction in the poverty. Thus research tells us why there are corporate governance failures in big organizations and explains the factors that influence the corporate governance like ownership structure, structure of company board, financial structure, etc.

LITERATURE REVIEW:——文献综述

1.1.1 Corporate Governance: An overview——公司治理:概述
Corporate Governance is an extensive term that refers that the rules, processes, responsibilities and the privileges are shared by the corporate participants. It basically says that how the investors assure that they get a return on their investment. It is the decision making committee by which the manager’s work on their duties in order to maximize investors wealth. Acc to Keasey et. al.(2005) approaches Corporate Governance as, “Corporate Governance has two requirements, micro level and macro level. At the micro level it needs to ensure that the firm, as a productive organization, functions in pursuit of its objectives. Thus if we follow the traditional Anglo-American conception of the firm as a device to further the well being of its owner-shareholders, good governance is a matter of ensuring that the decisions are taken and implemented in the pursuit of shareholder value. At the macro level corporate governance, in the words of Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan, ‘has evolved to more effectively promote the allocation of the nation’s savings to its most productive use.’ "
A good corporate governance should aim at long term benefits to the shareholders and other stakeholders. It can reduce the national financial crises. Corporate governance and currency depreciation have inverse relationship. Asian crisis of 1997 is one example of poor corporate governance norms. The manager should be working in the interest of the shareholders. Managers have the control over the business and may not act in the benefit of the shareholders. This is the common problem all over the world. On the whole a good corporate governance can help in preventing the financial scandals that happened in the world.

1.1.2 Corporate Governance in India:——印度的公司治理

In India, corporate governance was not understood till early 1990s. Indian legal system is based on the English common law and gives the highest protection to the investors and to lenders as well. The corruption rate is very high in India. The most important development in corporate governance and investor’s protection in India is the establishment of the Securities and Exchange Board of India in 1992,(Chakrabarti et. at.,2007). It was established to monitor the stock trading which helped in making the basic rules for the conduct of corporate in India. Reforms were made to make the people rely more on market than on government. The public sector was targeted inorder to make it more efficient and to bring out the government holdings for sale to the public. Banking sector reforms were also made to bring them to the international levels. In 1998 a code- Desirable Corporate Governance in India and the companies followed it,(Mallin,2010). Many who didn’t follow it experienced losses and ended up in losing the confidence of people. SEBI also made a committee on corporate governance in 1999 headed by Shri Kumar Mangalam Birla and report was published in 2000,(Mallin,2010). This concentrated on the capital market’s growth. The code is to be followed by the both public and private sector companies. The code tells about the structure of the company, the role played by them and what is everybody entitled for. i.e. Board of Directors, Nominee Directors, Chairman of the board, Audit committee, Remuneration committee, Shareholders, how corporate governance is implemented, management of the company and the board procedures. Though India has one of the best corporate governance laws but the implementation of them is very poor. In India, the main business type is the public limited companies. The legal system is the English Common Law, the structure of the Board is unitary and the ownership is basically family ownership or corporate but now the institutional investor’s ownership is increasing.

1.1.3 Financial Scandals:——金融丑闻

The corporate governance is influenced by the ownership structure, the structure of company boards, the financial structure and the institutional environment. If any of these doesn’t work properly then the scandals are prone to happen. The people choose the board of directors, which further appoint managers for different work who actually work daily in order to maximize shareholders wealth. It’s the board of directors that decided the corporate objectives and the managers are the one who carry them out. The main reasons that cause corporate governance to fail are as follows: the most important is that the work done is not watched properly and is very weak. There is not much respect for the shareholders, and moreover the management has the complete authority who works for their own benefits rather than the shareholders wealth maximization (KPGM, 2009). The few corporate scandals that have taken place all over the world are like Enron (USA), WorldCom (USA), Satyam (India) and many more (Mehta et. al).

RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES:——研究的问题和目标

The research aims to find the corporate structure and its role in fulfilling the objectives of an organization. The research about the present corporate governance structure and the changes it has come overtime and further any changes required according to international norms.

The main objective of the research is as follows:

How can corporate governance be more stringent to steer clear of scandals?

How important is the Board structure and the Audit committee on the board for good Corporate Governance?

Is there any alteration required in the current structure of corporate governance to make it work more efficiently?

METHOD:—— 方法

The research is to be done, in particular, for the detailed information on the corporate governance and the reasons of its failure which result in the fall of huge companies based on the following two reasons i.e. the Board structure and the Audit committee. The qualitative approach will be used. The primary data collection for the Board structure will be done based on two companies i.e. Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), India and Infosys Technology Limited (India) which can be compared to the one of the major company of India, Mahindra Satyam, which failed due to poor corporate governance. All three are the software companies. Taking direct interviews with the high officials on the management committee will be of helpful in finding out the deep structure and changes that are required for the corporate governance to work more efficiently and how does it still help the companies to perform up to their shareholder’s expectations. The Board structure can be discussed by knowing the number of members on the board, their independence. Auditors play an important role because due to their reports people put faith in the company. The audit members will be found and the actual knowledge of the members will be collected from the CMIE’s prowess database which will help in telling whether the committee has enough knowledge in order to fulfill the shareholder’s demand or not.

Secondary data is the data in which researcher is not involved in the collection (Dale, Arber, and Proctor 1988). The secondary data collection also got some advantages as cost and time, high-quality data, opportunities for longitudinal analysis, more time for data analysis and reanalysis may offer new interpretations (Knight and Latreille, 2000). Secondary data will be collected from company website, annual reports, books, journals, newspapers and magazines. The data collected as secondary can provide important information about the company and can prove supportive in research.

3.1 ASSESS RESEARCH QUALITY:——评估研究质量
Reliability: The reliability of interview can be ascertained by ensuring that all questions are clearly understandable to all the interviewees and the replies received can be coded explicitly. The answers received from interview should make sense and must prove helpful to the research.#p#分页标题#e#

The self-completion questionnaire must be filled by employees without any pressure from their managers. Therefore, a pilot test must be conducted before issuing of questionnaire (Saunders et al., 2003).

Validity: The validity is concerned with the issue that whether the data collected is related to what it is expected to be. According to Saunders et. al(2003), validity is related to a question of casual relationship between two variables?

The research will be conducted from February 2010 to May 2010. And there will be direct contact with senior managers in DAIPL to keep updated about any change in their motivational strategy or any change made internally. This will ensure the validity of the research done.

Ethics: The code of ethical conduct stated that it is the responsibility of the researcher to assess carefully the responsibility of harm to research participants, and, to the extent that it is possible, the possibility of harm should be minimized (Bryman and Bell, 2007).

Therefore, research conducted will be done only when managers and employees are willing to participate in research. The names of all participates would be kept confidential and not revealed at any reason. The questions in the interview will not be formulated in manner that they show any participant’s identity.

Accessibility: The researcher here is been granted the right to access and publish all the findings that are relevant to all ethical requirements.

(责任编辑:www.ukthesis.org)


------分隔符-------------------------------------
UK Thesis Base Contacts
推荐内容
  • essay写作技巧有哪些[误...

    essay写作技巧有哪些?关于一篇好的Essay写法已经解说的太多,这里就不再影响大家发挥了,这里有3个essay写作误区一定要注意,如果你是常常这样写,基本是......

  • 营销学essay范文:联想公...

    营销学essay范文哪里找?本文以联想公司为例,为大家提供了一篇关于公司营销计划成功的相关影响因素,希望大家通过范文能够总结出写作要点,写出自己领域内的essa......

  • 留学生会计作业Account...

    Accounting Essay怎么写?有哪些注意事项?在留学申请时,一份优秀的essay会显示出你的独特潜质,essay是留学文书中的一个重要写作内容,本文为......

  • 经济学essay写作方法「经...

    经济学essay写作方法有吗?很多同学在essay写作上比较头痛,其实写essay是有方法的,这里为大家分享一些写作建议,希望对你有所帮助。...

  • essay如何降重?能降多少...

    essay如何降重?能降多少?欧美等国家极其重视个人的学术诚信和原创性,对essay论文的要求很高,很多同学写好的essay往往重复率比较高,那怎样才能有效降低......

  • 英美文学essay:Cat ...

    导读:这是一篇英美文学方向的essay范文,讨论了海明威小说《雨中的猫》。《雨中的猫》是美国著名小说家海明威早期的代表作品。该小说讲述了一位和丈夫在意大利停留的......