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通过销售产品来建立消费关系

时间:2016-01-29 10:56:21 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
通过销售产品来建立消费关系
 
任务1:
 
营销是通过销售产品和服务获得合理利润,建立消费关系以及预测未来的过程。在这个过程中,可以确定消费者的需求和要求,加工制造产品或推出服务,并通过市场将产品和服务提供给消费者。
 
不同的人以不同的方式定义市场营销。根据2001年CIM的定义,“营销是为识别、预测和满足客户要求盈利能力负责的管理过程”。这意味着营销是确定消费者的需求,生产满足消费者需求的高品质产品,并以合理的价格和利润销售的过程。
 
2008年AMA把营销定义为一种活动,这个活动包括通过了解消费者需求来制造商品以及以符合商品价值的价格将商品出售给消费者及整个社会。
 
关于营销最简单的解释是2007年由Adcock et al定义的, “在正确的地点,正确的时间,以合适的价格出售合适的产品,”。这就意味着根据消费者的需要,在合适的时间及地点,以合理的价格出售合适的产品的过程被称为市场营销。
 
Building Consumer Relation By Promoting Products And Services Marketing Essay
 
任务1:-Assignment Part 1:
 
Marketing is the process of building consumer relation by promoting products and services obtaining reasonable profit as well as forecasting the future. In the process, consumer's needs and requirements are identified, the product is manufactured or the service is launched and through the market the products and services are made available to the consumers.
 
Different people have defined marketing in different ways. According to CIM, 2001, "Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitability". What it means is that, marketing is the process of identifying consumer needs, producing the required products trying to satisfy the consumers with the quality products at a reasonable price and profit.
 
AMA, 2008 defines Marketing as an activity of producing products while communicating with the consumers and providing offerings which have good value for money to the consumers and the society as a whole.
 
The simplest definition of Marketing defined by Adcock et al, 2007 is, "The right product, in the right place at the right time and at the right price". This means the right product according to the needs of the consumers made available in the right place at the right time with the reasonable price is called as Marketing.#p#分页标题#e#
 
All three definitions of marketing defined above have some similarities and differences. Talking about similarities, all three definitions point at the consumer's needs which should be identified before the product is produces. These definitions have used independent language but are inter-linked with each other. For instance, the first definition defines about communication and satisfaction. The second one defines about communication and offerings. The third one defines about the right product, place, price and time. These all are related to each other because customers are satisfied if their needs are met at the right place, right time, right price as well as continuous communication and offerings.
 
Although having similar points between each other, they also have differences which effect the definition of marketing. The definition given by CIM says that the profit is the outcome of identifying, anticipating and satisfying consumer needs. But second and third definitions haven't mentioned anything about profit. In the second definition, the stake-holders are included but first and third definitions haven't mentioned them. Advancing to the definition by Adcock et al, i.e. the third definition, it has talked about price which is missing in the first and second definitions.
 
Marketing itself is a broad term. Therefore, it is hard to define marketing in the actual world. But all the definitions contribute to the marketing and are inter-related to each other despite the fact that the differences exists in their defining style and target.
 
1.2 How is a marketing oriented organization different from alternative orientations?
ANSWER:
There are different companies which use different approach and focus on different orientation of business to help the company operate effectively. These orientations are the guideline of the companies and their existence in the market.
 
There are four main business orientations. They are:
 
Production Orientation
Sales Orientation
Financial Orientation
Consumer Orientation/Marketing Concept
Production Orientation: In this orientation, the companies focus on the product. They don't care about what a consumer wants or needs. They usually focus on what the consumers may want. They produce or launch new products in the market and then analyze the impact of the product to the consumers. This orientation has a high risk of being unsuccessful because they don't know what the consumers want. One good example of product orientation is I pad from Apple.
 
Sales Orientation: In this orientation, the companies focus on the sales of the manufactured product. They come up with different sales scheme and offers as well as marketing of the product. They try to sell their products to the consumers by persuading them to buy the product. They don't care whether the consumers want the product or not but they just try to sell them off. Usually this orientation is combined and implemented by some companies with production orientation. They produce the products and sell them in a various ways. This is the reason that this orientation only focuses on the sales.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Financial orientation: This orientation mainly focuses on profit. Business organizations try to find customers who are willing to pay more for the products. They use the cheapest method to produce the products. Usually the prices of their products are high in order to earn maximum profit. This orientation focuses on the profit and financial assets. This orientation is not successful to build strong relation with the consumers in a long term basis and also fail to stay up with the changing markets.
 
Marketing concept: Marketing orientation/concept is the most effective and modernized form of business orientation because it starts before the production of the product and continues even after the product is launched. Before the production, the companies spend money and time to research the market. From the research, they determine the needs of the consumers. According to the needs of the consumers, they produce the product and make available in the market. They use different promotional tools to promote their products in order to increase their customers. They also extract the feedbacks from the customers and try to improve or develop the product in order to extend the life of the product in the market.
 
The difference between marketing concept and other three orientations are that except marketing concept, no other orientations focuses on customer satisfaction completely. Other orientations only try to increase their business and earn profit but marketing orientation focuses on customer satisfaction as well as maintains the relation with the customers. This is the main reason marketing orientation/concept is the most effective guideline of business and is better than other orientations in any business empire.
 
1.3 What are the processes involved in running a marketing oriented company?
ANSWER:
The processes involved in running a marketing oriented company are Competitor Analysis, Marketing Audit, SWOT Analysis, Pest Analysis, Goals, Education, Training, etc. Competitor Analysis involves the process where the competitors existing in the market are analysed in order to know their position and compare them with our company. This process helps us to know the weaknesses and strengths of the products and services. The company can also solve the existing problem in the market for maintainable marketing. As the company can get information about their competitors, they can feel challenging market and therefore, try to stay ahead from each other.
 
Marketing Audit is an inclusive, liberated, organized and periodic analysis of a company's marketing situation, aims, tactics and actions with an opinion to shaping future of the company mentioning a strategy of action to increase the company's marketing position. The marketing audit is carried out in a regular basis in order to know all the latest information about the company.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Each organisation has its own culture describing its own goals. The most important thing in the Marketing oriented company is the customer care & it should be at the priority level from the beginning. Therefore, in order to achieve company's goal & target in marketing oriented, customer satisfaction & their fulfilment is the most important thing. For such companies, even the inspiration aspects depend upon the customer's happiness & the company's associates & employees & the crew members are inspired towards acquiring it.
 
The tactical device which is in fact used to calculate the company's prospective over a period in an organized way is known as the marketing audit. A market based organisation, the audit is done in a specific period of time & is very important to know the fact about the company's original potential in the field of market. After knowing the limitation of the company it helps us to maintain the new marketing plans where the plans further made are customer care based.
 
The next factor for running the marketing oriented company is the Training & education. As the world is full of competition the companies are urging to fulfil their needs thus company's members & workers require a full of hard working & training. By the help of such programs the worker & member of the company are motivated towards their works helps in their development skill which helps to increase their pride. As a result the sustainable growth of the company is guaranteed.
 
SWOT (Strength, weakness, opportunities & threats) is a mechanism used for auditing & the business environment. This is the initial stage of planning which help in the organisation goals, programs & capacities to the social environment. SWOT comprises of two factors. STREGTH & WEAKNESS falls under the internal factors whereas OPPORTUNITIES & THREATS falls under the external factors. Another process in marketing orientation is the PEST analysis. The factor involving the pest is political, economic, social & technological factors. The business is always abided by the political rule of the country. To improve the country's economy by not hampering they are also considered. Social & Technological part are also noticed before implementing the business.
 
1.4 Critically analyze the costs and benefits of a customer-led orientation.
ANSWER:
There are different companies which use different approach and target on different orientation of business to help the company operate effectively. In this business orientation, there are four main business orientations. But the most successful and effective orientation is the marketing orientation/customer-led orientation.
 
Customer-led orientation is the guideline followed by most of the companies because it is the modern concept of marketing. This orientation tries to find and research what the consumers want. Then only the business organizations/industries produce the product which will certainly satisfy the customers. Despite the fact that customer-led orientation is the most effective approach to the business firms and the consumers, it has some of the advantages and disadvantages.#p#分页标题#e#
 
One of the biggest advantages of customer-led orientation is the delivery of customer satisfaction and fulfillment of their needs. Before advancing to produce or launch a product, the business first researches the needs and demands of its target customers. So, there is a relatively high chance of sales and customer satisfaction. But the disadvantage of this orientation is the cost of the research in order to understand the needs and demands of the customers in the market. The company or the business has to spend a lot of money and time for research. However, the business will have a strong and valuable understanding of customers' need through market research.
 
Another advantage of market orientation is that new products which are introduced in the market through research have greater chance of success. The business can attract more customers and can satisfy the customers easily. But the disadvantage of this orientation is that there will be constant change in the demands of the consumers. So, the future of the market is unpredictable. It is more expensive to introduce new products from time to time because of research in the market and it is not possible to forecast the future of the products.
 
任务2 & 3:-Assignment Part 2 & 3:
 
2.1 What are the macro and micro considerations that will affect your marketing decisions?
ANSWER:
As we all know that marketing decisions should be taken into considerations by understanding the market and dividing it to different possible segments. We should analyze the market in various segments so that the business can run smoothly. In order to help the business to decide the market, Macro & Micro considerations are implemented in the organization.
 
The Macro & Micro considerations are as follows:
 
Macro: The business organization has to look after many considerations before starting or launching any product in the market. P.E.S.T. analysis is mainly referred to Macro considerations. The PEST analysis includes Political, Economic, Social and Technology. The political status and law of the country is highly affects the market. For instance, in U.K. and many other countries, people cannot sell alcohols and tobaccos without holding a legal permission. My company produces various kinds of Cigarettes. So, in U.K. the market of cigarettes is quite higher and due to political conditions, my products are available only in the off-license shops.
 
Economic factors also affect the market. The business should know what the suitable price of the product is and where to make them available. If the area is a resident of poor people, they cannot afford to buy expensive products. The social and technological factors also have its effects on the market. If my company produces cigarettes with high amount of nicotine, there will be disturbance in the social behaviors in the society due to their health.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Micro: As like Macro considerations, there are Micro considerations which the business organization should analyze properly. S.W.O.T. analysis is the main factors affecting the market. The extended form of S.W.O.T. is Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats.
 
My company produces cigarettes with various quality and forms. The strength of my product is that my company has its own farming for tobacco plants and therefore produces high quality cigarettes in reasonable price. My company also produces cigarettes with low amount of nicotine which is very popular among females. The main strength of my product is the wide range of products which are always in demand.
 
The weakness of my product is the health of the customers in a long term basis. We produce high quality cigarettes. So the nicotine present in some variety of Cigarette is high too.
 
The opportunities come under the company in a various forms. The threat to the company is the product itself because the packaging of my product may demote the product itself due to the packaging. According to the law, we have to mention "SMOKING IS INJURIOUS TO HEALTH" or something like that which warns the customers.
 
Therefore, these are the Macro & Micro considerations that effect the marketing decisions.
 
2.2 Segment the market for your product/service. Discuss a series of possible segments.
ANSWER:
Segmentation of market is done based on the following factors:
 
Demographic
Psychographic
Geographic
Product benefit
a) Demographic:
The demographic aspect include the age, gender, family size, family life cycle, generation, income, occupation, education, ethnicity, nationality, religion, social class. My cigarette manufacturing company does get affected by this aspect of segmentation. As, the family related factors belongs to this segment there is a high chances that there family won't allow their family members to smoke. Hence the family related matters are the major related factors affecting the demographic aspect of segmentation.
 
b) Psychographic:
Psychographic segmentation groups customers according to their lifestyles. AIO (Activities, Interest & Opinion) is the tools for measuring lifestyles. It includes the activities, interest, opinion, attitudes & values of the customers. For, my cigarette manufacturing company psychographic factors does not affect much as the people are encourage to smoke according to their personal interest, due to their day to day activities & to show off their attitudes in the society. Hence, the psychographic factors support this business.
 
#p#分页标题#e#
c) Geographic:
Geographic aspects of segmentation include the region, size of metropolitan area, population density, climate etc.
 
2.3 Choose a targeting strategy for your product and justify why you choose this approach.
I have chosen cigarette as my product & I would prefer a differential marketing strategy for this product. Although cigarette is injurious to health it is used by almost every adult with the age of 18 & above & is the daily used product in the market. The use of the cigarette is almost impossible to cut off in the present market field. This is because the large number of youth & adult is engaged in the habit of smoking & for them giving up smoking is almost impossible so if my business could manufacture a quality of cigarettes i am guarantee of making a good profit through it.
 
2.4 Explain the influence of buyer behavior on your marketing activities.
According to Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, "The buyer's behavior change with levels starting from the physiological to Self Actualization."
 
In this procedure the buyer have a tendency to attain the safety & security needs. These include the need of getting insurance, safe & supporting neighborhood & job security, shelter from the environment, balance backup & much more. After attaining the safety needs buyer's behavior changes towards the social needs. Now, they start to change towards the social needs for which they tend to socialize & fall into love, care & affections relating to emotions because they want to attain social belongings to care & to be cared. Therefore, those needs are satisfied by the social relationships such as romantic achievement, friendship, family interactions involving in various religious beliefs & festivals. After, the social needs the esteem needs come next. The desire of personal worth & value which makes person feel & becomes the social unique identity falls to this esteem needs. Hence, the people try to achieve more & more in order to be financially strong to reinforce their societal morals. Finally the stage of the self-actualization comes where the people start to see into their own potential & complete the task that they are seeking to achieve for or what they desire for.
 
As, my chosen product is cigarette & my business manufacturers produce a quality of the cigarette for the people in the market. Since a wide variety of age group people smoke the cigarette, my product is actually applicable in all aspects of changing buyer's needs & behavior. Though it does not fall under the basic needs it does fall under all three needs. Most people start to smoke at the age of 17 or 18 just to get their attention of their friends & colleagues. After that they make a habit go smoking regularly which is unstoppable for them to give up smoking & continue to smoke just to maintain their social needs, esteem needs & as well as safety needs.#p#分页标题#e#
 
3.1 How can you develop your product to sustain a competitive advantage?
I can give sustain & a competitive advantage by providing a good brand of cigarette to the public as per their needs at affordable price that they can handle. I will plant the tobacco which will be used for the manufacture of cigarette & take a care good inspection of it & invest a lot of money over it so that I can I can research on it so that I can produce the best quality of cigarette than that which are available in the present market.
 
In the name of money, the manufacturer makes their product with low quality which is harmful for our customer's health. Although, the smoking itself is injurious to health but as the people start to smoke they are unable to leave the habit of smoking make the habit of smoking as one of their major needs of their life so it is better for we manufacturer company to produce a better quality of cigarette taking care of our consumers health which I will do so in my manufacturing company & provide my consumer a quality product of cigarette.
 
3.2 How can you distribute your product to maximize customer convenience?
As my product is cigarette & I have already mention that the wide variety of people use cigarette for their need. That is the people from the group of age starting from 18 & above smoke regularly. Some people are chain smokers whereas some people smoke to give show off to their friends, some people smoke when they are in problem or when they frustrate. No matter whatever the reason is people smoke in day to day life. Not only men, women also do smoke in daily life. Smoking is an addiction for the people
 
I would make an ease by supplying a company's good to each & every place which can be a remote places as well as urban places. We can distribute our product to various places at the wholesale level. In some cases, where there will be the demand of large quantities can actually buy from wholesalers. So retailer can directly buy from wholesaler who makes the goods easily available to the general public.
 
What are your pricing strategy options?
The pricing strategies are setting up prices for the company's product. These strategies depend upon the organization's objectives and to what methods it tackles in the market. There are different types of strategies. They are as follows:
 
Penetration Strategies: Theses strategies refer to setting up low prices and creating market for the product.
 
Skimming Strategies: These strategies refer to making the market for the product even wider by increasing the price and gradually decreasing it.
 
Competition Strategies: These strategies refer to setting up prices comparing the prices that are already set up by the competitors.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Product line pricing: These strategies refer to pricing different products within the same product range in different price points.
 
Bundle pricing: These strategies refer to gatherings of products into a group and selling them at low prices.
 
Psychological pricing: These strategies refer to setting up the price for the product high so that the customers have positive psychological effect upon the products quality.
 
Premium pricing: The price is set high to show its exclusiveness.
 
Optional pricing: These strategies refer to the selling of optional items along with the product.
 
For my cigarette product, I would like to choose a Penetration strategy because the manufacture of the cigarette is comparatively common at market place. People cannot give up their quality of brands which they are taking regularly. For instance if a group of people are having a cigarette of X brand than they are likely to have that brand only they cannot change it to the Y brand unless they find brand Y to be cheaper than the brand X with same quality level. So, in my view the penetration is the strategy which i would like to implement in my price.
 
3.4 How will you promote your product/service?
In order to make my cigarette known to the customers, I would certainly advertise my product through various means & mediums. As, the cigarette is likely to be consumed by most of the people in the market i need not have to invest a large amount of money on advertising. I just simply have to invoke their brand of flavor towards my brand that's all & for that i would launch a free campaign over various places to encourage the consumer towards my brand of cigarette which will encourage the people to use my brand of cigarette.
 
I would like to promote the product at various places like in concerts, street festivals, carnivals etc. this would help the consumer to know about the product about how it is? In this promotion I would launch free campaign & show the people how good my product is & of better quality compared to others.
 
Likewise, understanding the psychology of the people we can attract more & more people by manufacturing the products according to their needs which will help to attract more people towards my good. For example some people like to have the light brand of cigarette where there will be less amount of nicotine & some of them will like to have a hard type which contain more amount of nicotine so according to their needs the product will be made. Such psychographic issues can also be used for advertising.
 
3.4 Consider the elements of people, process & physical evidence for your marketing mix.
#p#分页标题#e#
People, process & physical elements are always the core of any business organization. Thus, this are required for any business or organization. My business organization produces a goods which deal with the health of the people therefore I would require a highly skilled & creative people on administration sector of my organization. There is a need of proper research in the laboratory for the good quality of cigarette as the amount of nicotine & tobacco used must be measured or else there might be side effect on the consumers health so highly skilled human resources is needed in my organization. Likewise the labor also gets the opportunity to work in the organist ion so there will be the job opportunity for the local people too. So I will provide separate sectors for the different categories of the workers that work in my organization.
 
任务4:—Assignment Part 4:
 
4.1 & 4.3 Explain how the marketing mix for your product would differ in the two separate markets of the UK and your home country.
ANSWER:
There are 7p's in marketing mix which differs in two separate markets of the UK and my Home Country Nepal. They are:
 
Product
 
Place
 
Price
 
Promotion
 
People
 
Process
 
Physical evidence
 
My company produces cigarettes from home grown high quality tobaccos. The product comes in different size and taste but the quality is the same. The market has different cigarettes from my company like Gold, Silver, Green and Blue colored packaging. The Golden packet contains cigarettes with 0.9 mg nicotine. Silver Packet contains 0.6 mg nicotine which is lighter than the gold one. The Blue pack contains 0.3 mg nicotine which is also called light cigarettes. The Green packet contains menthol cigarettes with 0.4 mg nicotine. All the products mentioned above come in king size and super king size.
 
Place is important factor in marketing mix. My products are made available to different off license shops and supermarkets. Customers have easy access to the products whenever they want it because they can buy the cigarettes online too. My products never go out of stock because of wide range of the products.
 
Price is quite the same for my products as other cigarettes in the market. But customers are more likely to buy my products because of good value and quality for their money. I have used competition pricing strategy for my products and this has increased the sales of my products.
 
Talking about the marketing status in my country Nepal, the price of my products is cheaper in comparison to U.K. although the quality is the same. This is because my company is situated in Nepal and the costs of my products rise in U.K. as they are all exported from my country. The other reason is the difference in per capita income between Nepal and U.K.#p#分页标题#e#
 
4.2 Explain the differences in marketing products and services to organizations rather than consumers.
ANSWER:
In a simple definition, Marketing is a process of raising the status of a product promoting relation with consumers and forecasting the future in order to gain profit. Consumers are always related to the marketing. However, there are two types of consumers, one is business organization and the other is an individual.
 
Business to business marketing means selling the products to other business organizations rather than individual consumers. Business to business marketing takes place between manufacturing companies. The business company which depends on the products of other company is the consumer for the company which supplies products to that company.
 
The raw material that these products mostly used is materials used by other business for the manufacturing. The companies who are depended upon the products of the other business are the actual customer for the supplying company. The advertisement is not included in this type of marketing because the customer company solely relies upon them. Sometimes the advertisement is involved but it is given less priority. Thus, less money gets spent in the marketing process. Similarly, there is always the mutual understanding between the company organizations as business to business marketing is simple. As these types of companies are limited, the supplying company knows much about the customer organization. Therefore, the marketing process is done much more easily & dealing to each and every aspect is not required. This type of marketing is not about the individuals need & what the individual person wants rather it is all about the organizational needs.
 
As, Business to customer is all about the individual interest of the customer. In this type of business the supplying company does not know about the customer's interest. As this marketing refers to the individuals, the organization finds uncountable numbers of customers in the market. Plus, it is likely that there may be or may not be the transaction into the business. Therefore, this type of marketing requires more & more focus on the advertising & is not possible to deal with each & every customers to attract their attention. So a massive amount of money is spent in this type of marketing process.
 

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