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伊斯兰银行业的影响

时间:2016-02-19 09:18来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

伊斯兰银行业的影响
Impact Of Islamic Banking


本研究发现现实或任何事实造成的影响引入伊斯兰银行业消费者融资部门一般来说,在巴基斯坦通过银行同时保持其主要重点明确房屋融资和汽车融资。总银行是否参与伊斯兰传统消费者融资纳入本研究,保持2003年为基准年的数据开始。因为53%的消费者融资被定义为他们保持专注房子和汽车融资。独立t运行的投资增长以及伊斯兰和传统银行业的行业。从统计的数据收集和巴基斯坦国家银行数据仓库部门。方差的结果表明,伊斯兰和传统的投资行业不同于彼此,H0被拒绝的基础上t的值属性的增长比较差异被认为是相同的在10%显著水平但是增长的方式站在29%和9%分别在伊斯兰的情况下和传统的银行证明伊斯兰银行业消费者融资的积极影响在巴基斯坦的大房子和汽车融资部门。对于任何不协调巴基斯坦国家银行或AAOFI标准,以后者为准。

写这篇文章的研究目的就是破坏引起的事实的理解以及影响由于在巴基斯坦伊斯兰银行业的引入。它被人们赞誉与伊斯兰银行业的行业有积极影响银行业和全球各地。引用的数字和百分比声称但没有真正的研究支持声明。所以作者认为在这个问题上做研究,对巴基斯坦进行研究,配置的真实排名conterparts通常被称为伊斯兰银行和传统银行。

Abstract——摘要

This study finds out the realistic or any factual impact caused by the introduction of Islamic Banking on the consumer financing sector generally, while keeping its main focus explicitly on House Financing and Car Financing through banks in Pakistan. The total banks involved in consumer financing whether Islamic or Conventional where included in this research, keeping 2003 as the base year of data initiation. Since 53% of Consumer financing was being defined by House and Car financing so they were kept in focus. Independent T-Tests were run on the investments as well as the growth of both the sectors that is Islamic and Conventional banking sectors. The data was collected from the Statistical & Data Ware House Department of State Bank of Pakistan. The results show that the variances in the investment sectors of both Islamic and Conventional differed from each other where H0 was rejected on the basis of value of t stats where as in the growth comparison the variances were said to be same at 10% significant level but the means of growth stood at 29% and 9% in cases of Islamic and Conventional banking respectively proving the positive impact of Islamic Banking on Consumer Financing's bulky sector of House and Car Financing in Pakistan . In case of any incongruity to State Bank of Pakistan or the AAOFI standards, the latter shall prevail.

Chapter one: Introduction——第一章:介绍

The intent to write this research was to undermine the factual understanding as well as affect caused due to the introduction of Islamic Banking in Pakistan. It was acclaimed by the people related to the industry that Islamic Banking had positively affected the banking sector here and across the globe. The numbers were quoted and percentages claimed but no real research supported the declarations. So the author thought of doing a research to dwell on the issue and conduct a research with respect to Pakistan hence, configure the true standings of the conterparts known commonly as Islamic Banking and Conventional Banking.

Islamic Banking though has a mere institutionalised history of 35 years across the globe but has gained tremendous recognition in this short tenure which shall be wittnessed in the literature review ahead in this paper. The evolution of Islamic Banking in Pakistan started as late as 2000 - 01 after the historical judgement of the Supreme Court of Pakistan in1999 against the prevailing interest based banking system. The Islamic banking emerged, though after a valiant effort which continued over two decades prior to its surfacing. Different reports, articles, awareness sessions, books and other relative material endowed to this very existence of Islamic Banks in Pakistan. Though the clouds of uncertainity have lingered on this newly instigated initiative ever since its emergence, but then again that has always remained a norm for innovative things in Pakistan. Though Islamic Banking has come a long way after its start almost a decade ago but it still has a lot to prove to its spectators with respect to shariah compliance and market effectiveness in the Pakistan's lucrative but stingent souk.

Consumer Financing is a sector which has its part of exuberance attached to it in the banking and financial sector. When ever the financial markets are flooded with accessive liquidity the first thing that magnetizes the banker is the consumer financing sector specially in Pakistan where the yeilds were as high as 15% on proceeds. The magnitude of House and Car finance together tend to weigh around at almost 53% of this sector so the proceedings in this neighborhood can be established by analysing these mentioned sectors. In view of the fact that the House & Car financing sector provide a level playing field for the conterparts that is Islamic and Conventional players, was another reason for this assortment.

In the paper further the comparative analysis is conducted as well as the background of both Islamic Banking and Finance with Consumer Financing has been discussed in comprehensive detail.

Statement of the Problem——开题讨论

Islamic Banking ever since it's emergence in Pakistan has raised eyebrows of related and non related players. Is there a difference? Which banking system shall prevail? Does Islamic Banking have enough weight to outset its conterpart? Can Islamic Banking loose the tag of being a parellel banking system and become the prefered banking operation in Pakistan? The researcher answers to these questions in the light of the literature review as well as by testing the viability of Islamic Banking sector to its conterpart Conventional Banking in the asset backed sectors of House and Car finance (through banks) in Pakistan.

Objective——目的

Basic purpose of this research is to determine the differential impact of Islamic Banking in contrast to Conventional Banking on House & Car Financing through Banks in Pakistan.


Research Model——研究模型

Hypotheses——研究假设

H0: Islamic Banking does not impact House & Car Financing through Banks In Pakistan.

H1: Islamic Banking directly impacts House & Car Financing through Banks In Pakistan.

Chapter Two: Literature Review——第二章:文献综述


This segment will appraise the comprehesive literature review with respect to Islamic Banking globally while Consumer Banking Sector in Pakistan.

Islam as a Code of Life——伊斯兰教作为一个代码的生活

Islam acclaims its self to be a Deen which provides "a complete code of life" to its practitioners. According to its claim Islam not only helps its followers rather also those who seek for help without believing in its core essence for day to day hinderances. May it be a name for a believer's child or be it the purpose of life, Islam alone tends to answer to all the versatile queries of its disciple. This is the beauty of Islam but it can only lead to enlightenment only if all the resources of Islam are kept in view or an adherent may astray from the righteous path.

The main resources of Islam can be categorized as follows:

Quran e Karim - The Holy Book sent upon Hazarat Muhammad
Ahadith e Mubarakah (Sayings of Hazarat Muhammad)
Shariah (Implementation of Islam) Lives of Hazrat Muhammad and the Sahaba (Companions of Hazarat Muhammad)
Hence the Deen, Islam, can be categorized into three main branches:

Beliefs (Aqaaid)
Reformation and Rectification (Tassawuf) &
Islamic Laws and Principles (Fiqha).
Since my paper would be coming under the third bough of a healthy hierarchy, that is, Islamic laws and Principle - Jurisprudence (Fiqh). Further elaborating this division known as Fiqh (Islamic Laws and Principles) can be further sub-divided into the following sections:

Prayers (Forms of submissions to Allah Tallah, Ibadaat)
Societal or Civil Laws (Ma'amlaat)
Criminal Laws
Constitutional laws
Since my paper discusses the Societal or Civil laws (Ma'amlaat) or rather absolutely specifying it would be dealing with financial aspects of this vast sub branch of Fiqh. Coming to the financial aspects of a Muslim or even an Oriental who believes in the fairness of Islamic laws, the main concern of this individual is to abide by Islamic law and principles while earning bread and butter for himself and his family.

The things permissible by Islamic Jurisprudence are referred to as 'Halal' while the things that are prohibited in Islamic Fiqh are known as 'Haram'. It is by obligation that a Muslim or even an Oriental who believes in Islamic laws can earn his living only through 'Halal' ways. One way of distinguishing 'Halal' is by identifying the prohibitions while the rest remains permissible.

Prohibitions in Islam for Financial Procedures——伊斯兰教禁止金融程序

The two of the main ills identified by Islam in financial procedures are:

Riba (Interest)
Gharar.

Riba (Interest)——瑞芭(利益)

In perspectives of Shari'ah money is considered to be a assessing means for value or worth rather than an 'asset' within itself, it necessitates that an investor should not be able to obtain income from capital (or everything that is treated as a kind of money) alone. This production of money from money (commonly known as interest) is 'Riba', which is prohibited in Islam. Prohibation of Interest (Riba) in Quran

Following are the verses where Quran has out rightly identified interest as a prohibition. In the following verse our Creator nullifies the visual increase of wealth earned through interest.

And whatever Riba you give so that it may increase in the wealth of the people it does not increase with Allah Subhanahu Tallah (30:39)
At another place it has been identified that the Jews weren't allowed to indulge in interest.

And because of their charging Riba while they were prohibited from it (4:161)
A verse which identifies the prohibition of interest and its form whether it be compounded.

O those who believe do not eat up Riba doubled and redoubled (3:130)
Riba's eminent prohibition can be seen in the following verse while at the same time the permissible alternative of trading has been offered. Another important factor which can be witnessed here is that giving of charity is being encouraged while interest is being regarded as a curse.

Those who take Riba (usury or interest) will not stand but as stands the one whom the demon has driven craze by his touch. That is because they have said:" Trading is but like Riba" and Allah Subhanahu Tallah has permitted trading and prohibited Riba. So, whoever receives an advice from his lord and stops, he is allowed what has passed, and his matter is up to Allah Subhanahu Tallah . And the ones who revert back, those are the people of fire. There they remain forever.
Allah Subhanahu Tallah destroys Riba and nourishes charities. And Allah Subhanahu Tallah does not like any sinful disbeliever. Surely those who believe and do good deeds, establish Salah and pay Zakah, have their reward with their lord, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve.
O those who believer, fear Allah and give up what still remains of 'Riba' if you are believers. But if you do not, then listen to the declaration of war from Allah and his messenger. And if you repent, yours is your principal. Neither you wrong, nor be wronged. And if there be one in misery, then deferment till ease. And that you leave it as alms is far better for you, if you really know. And be fearful of a day when you shall be returned to Allah, then everybody shall be paid, in full, what he has earned. And they shall not be wronged. (2: verses 275-281)

Identifying one of the greatest ills of Interests 'concentration of wealth' the rich becoming wealthier and the poor becoming underprivileged, the verse tends to unfold one of the many aliments caused by going against the prohibition.(责任编辑:anne)



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