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市场转型,政府的政策,与中国省际人口迁移

时间:2016-05-03 11:30来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
I. Introduction 介绍
 
自1978以来,中华人民共和国已开始了一个巨大的经济和社会转型,向市场经济转型。社会科学家一直在研究其动因这一经济变革对中国社会的不同方面,不平等,工资的确定、2等行为的迁移和人口的3。在这篇文章中我们将讨论研究如何通过某些方面的经济改革和政府的政策在上世纪80年代末在受影响的人口分布。特别是,我们专注于经济条件如何,外国资本投资,以及农村企业存在影响省际人口迁移在改革时期。Since 1978, the People's Republic of China has embarked on a great economic and social transformation-the transition to a market- oriented economy. Social scientists have been studying the conse- quences this economic change is having on different aspects of Chinese society, including inequality,' wage determination,2 and demographic behaviors such as migration.3 In this article we extend this discussion by examining how certain aspects of economic reform and government policies affected population distribution in the late 1980s. In particular, we focus on how economic conditions, foreign capital investment, and the presence of rural enterprises influence interprovincial migration in the reform era. 
 
II. Migration Policy and Economic Reforms 移民政策和经济改革
 
移民和人口分布一直是主要的控制问题,为政策制定者和社会科学家在中国。多年来,中国是其严格控制农村人口向城市迁移的众所周知的,票面的迁移到大城市。4的官方政策,宣布在1980有三个要素:(1)严格限制大城市规模,合理发展中等城市(2),和(3)鼓励小城市和城镇的发展。然而5情况发生了变化,1978,随着中国农村经济改革开始,提高农业效率和产生的剩余劳动力。6还多,在上世纪80年代末城市改革削弱了户籍登记时系统明显,迁移到城市地区(特别是盟友临时迁移)比以前容易多了。这些变化?1997由芝加哥大学。保留所有权利。0013-0079 / 97 / 4502-0004 o01.00美元发生之时,中国政府官方政策方面以人口迁移和城市化基本保持不变。为解决由此产生的农村剩余劳动力问题,中国政府资助的项目,促进了副活动。其中最系统的这一政策措施是激励农村企业时代建立和具体(乡镇企业)由村、镇、或个人。政府提供的技术前对这些新建立的乡镇企业专业技术和税收优惠,7和作为一个结果,他们已经大幅增加。Migration and population redistribution have always been major con- cerns for policy makers and social scientists in China. For years, China was well known for its tight control of rural-to-urban migration, par- ticularly migration to big cities.4 The official policy that was declared in 1980 had three elements: (1) strictly limiting the size of big cities, (2) properly developing medium-sized cities, and (3) encouraging the growth of small cities and towns.5 The situation changed, however, with the beginning of economic reforms in rural China in 1978, which improved agricultural efficiency and generated surplus labor.6 Further- more, urban reforms in the late 1980s weakened the household regis- tration system significantly and made migration to urban areas (especi- ally temporary migration) much easier than before. These changes ? 1997 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. 0013-0079/97/4502-0004$O01.00 occurred at a time when the official Chinese government policy regard- ing migration and urbanization remained basically unchanged. To address the resultant rural surplus labor problem, the Chinese government sponsored programs that promoted sideline activities. One of the most systematic and concrete steps of this policy was to encour- age establishment of rural enterprises (xiang zhen qi ye) run by village, town, or private individuals. The government provides technical ex- pertise and tax privileges for these newly established rural enterprises,7 and as a result, they have increased dramatically. In 1979, there were 1.48 million rural enterprises that employed 29 million rural peasants. By 1993, however, there were 23.2 million rural enterprises that em- ployed about 112.3 million workers.8 Indirect evidence suggests that rural enterprises might indeed reduce migration from rural to urban areas.9 Nevertheless, there is little direct empirical evidence on the impact that rural enterprises have on the propensity to migrate. In other settings, rural development schemes have generally met with mixed results.' The post-1978 economic reforms have exacerbated regional in- equalities in population and income distribution. Regions with poorly developed markets exhibit slower growth rates relative to marketized areas." In 1987, Guangdong Province received $1.12 billion of foreign investment and loans, about 13.8% of the national total.'2 In contrast, one of the poorest provinces-Guizhou Province-received no foreign investment in 1987. Since foreign investments generate employment and salaries well above the average, those provinces that have a high level of foreign investment stand to gain migrants from other prov- inces.'3 Urban economic reforms not only have brought about changes in the production process, but these reforms have also enhanced a work unit's (dan wei) autonomy in hiring personnel. All individuals in China are recorded in a household registration system. To move from one province to another and still obtain entitlement and services, one needs permission from both province of origin and province of destination. The economic reforms have eroded the household registration system. A work unit now can hire anyone who has the know-how, regardless of registration status. Furthermore, the system of rationing food has been replaced by the cash market. As a result, the household registra- tion system is no longer effective as a way to control migration. Much contemporary research on interprovincial migration in China has described aggregate patterns of the flow of persons, but it suffers from underspecification of the mechanisms of interprovincial redistribution.A 4 The study of interprovincial migration has a particular advantage in that it is not subject to the boundary reclassification that compromises the study of rural-urban migration.'" Using the China 1990 Population Census information on reasons for interprovincial mi-  (责任编辑:anne)


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