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英国留学生essay代写范文|印度经济的转型

时间:2016-11-30 17:17来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
过渡经济是一种由中央计划经济向自由市场转变的经济。转型经济体经历了经济自由化,市场力量决定了价格,而不是一个中央计划组织。除此之外,贸易壁垒的拆除,有推动私有化的国有企业和资源,与金融部门为了促进宏观经济稳定、私人资本的运动。
过渡过程的特点通常是改变和创造的机构,特别是民营企业;在国家的角色转变,从而从根本上不同的政府机构和私营企业创造的推广,市场和金融机构独立。
印度经济的发展是社会主义政策为其独立的历史,包括许多行业的国有制;广泛的管制和红头文件称为“许可证”;从世界经济隔离。独立后的三年里,印度的人均收入仅增长了1%左右。自上世纪80年代中期以来,印度已经慢慢开放市场经济自由化。1991年进行了根本的改革,自2000年后,印度已经转向自由市场经济。
 
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a free market. Transition economies undergo economic liberalization, where market forces set prices rather than a central planning organization. In addition to this trade barriers are removed, there is a push to privatize state-owned businesses and resources, and a financial sector is created to facilitate macroeconomic stabilization and the movement of private capital.
 
The transition process is usually characterized by the changing and creating of institutions, particularly private enterprises; changes in the role of the state, thereby, the creation of fundamentally different governmental institutions and the promotion of private-owned enterprises, markets and independent financial institutions.
 
The economic development in India followed socialist-inspired policies for most of its independent history, including state-ownership of many sectors; extensive regulation and red tape known as "License Raj"; and isolation from the world economy. India's per capita income increased at only around 1% annualized rate in the three decades after Independence. Since the mid-1980s, India has slowly opened up its markets through economic liberalization. After more fundamental reforms since 1991 and their renewal in the 2000s, India has progressed towards a free market economy.
 
In the late 2000s, India's growth reached 7.5%, which will double the average income in a decade. Analysts say that if India pushed more fundamental market reforms, it could sustain the rate and even reach the government's 2011 target of 10%. States have large responsibilities over their economies. Maharashtra has proved all time hit contributor to boost up the economic rise since independence. The annualized 1999-2008 growth rates for Tamil Nadu (9.8), Gujarat (9.6%), HaryanaÂ(9.1%), or Delhi (8.9%) were significantly higher than for Bihar (5.1%), Uttar Pradesh (4.4%), or Madhya PradeshÂ(6.5%). India is the fourth-largest economy in the world and the third largest by purchasing power parity adjusted exchange rates (PPP). On per capita basis, it ranks128th in the world or 118th by PPP.(责任编辑:BUG)


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