教育管理 management of education
Chapter 1 – Introduction 简介
The management of educational organisations is a field of study and practice concerned with the way educational institutions operate. The word ‘management’ can be defined as “a set of activities directed towards efficient and effective utilisation of organisational resources in order to achieve organisational goals” (Sapre, 2002, p.102). According to Cuban (1988), management is more perceived as a maintenance activity as compared to leadership, which is more related to change within an organisation. In their study of twelve ‘effective’ schools, Day et al. (2001) concluded that management is heavily related to systems and ‘paper’ while leadership is more about developing people.
In the module “Managing Educational Organisations”, several important issues have been raised and for the purpose of this assignment, the models of educational management put forward by Tony Bush (1986, 1995, 2003) will be discussed.
Chapter 2 – Tony Bush’s Models of Educational Management Tony Bush教育管理模式
With regards to managing educational organisations, Glatter (1979, p.16) states that studies on management are concerned with “the internal operation of educational institutions, and also with their relationships with their environment, that is, the communities in which they are set, and with the governing bodies to which they are formally responsible”. That is, school heads together with subordinates have to be involved with both internal and external audiences in leading their school. According to Bolam (1999, p.194), educational management can be defined as ‘an executive function for carrying out agreed policy’. He differentiates management from educational leadership which has ‘at its core the responsibility for policy formulation and, where appropriate, organisational transformation’ (p. 194). For Bush (2003), educational management has to be essentially concerned with the purpose or aims of education.
Tony Bush (2003) classifies educational management into six models, namely, formal, collegial, political, subjective, ambiguity and cultural. In the following paragraphs, I will detail only four of the six models due to the word limitation of the assignment and discuss how they impact upon me.(责任编辑：BUG)