Handbook Proposal Abstract introductionLiterature Review outline swot分析法 pest分析法 pestel analysis case study Methodology Reference 论文题目选题


时间:2015-08-08 15:44来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
This Literature review intends to provide basis for the later research on the given topic. For this purpose, several articles of renowned authors were carefully studied and useful material was extracted for the better understanding of reader. Firstly, this study would review the previous work regarding negative reciprocity.
Cropanzano & Mitchell in 2005 said, normally reciprocity is usually deemed as positive reciprocity, except this negative reciprocity also exists, Negative reciprocity is explained as negative treatment is repaid with negative treatment.
Negative reciprocity   For instance, a neighbor yours may be offered a new employment opportunity in a far-away city starting in couple of days.  There would be desperation to sell her car prior to her departure.  The car is almost new and it charged her 22,000 Rs.  She is offered 10,000 Rs which she halfhearted agrees to because she is out of options.  Taking advantage of her circumstances resulted in negative reciprocity.
 It is not necessary that all the time negative reciprocity means taking advantage of someone.  In fact someone may be providing you with the additional than you believe that you are giving in return.  For instance a student who is poor but wanting to go to an expensive university will treat his rich uncle with respect and manner hoping he would financially help him.  As the uncle receives the extra attention, respect and recognition, he would gladly pay for the education.  The money which he is paying for the education has very little importance to him compared to the recognition that he is given. Similarly an employee who acts respectfully towards his employer just to get promoted could be deemed an attempt at gaining negative reciprocity advantage in the place of work. An example of negative reciprocity in action is penalty under the law. National laws typically do a lot more than just telling what is allowed and what is not. In addition to this, the law is also responsible to state what option is to be taken by the state in case an individual is found guilty to have violated the law. Naturally the penalties are relative in size to the seriousness of the offense. An individual would be punished and fined to a very small extent for violating a parking regulation, whereas the penalty for rape or murder will engage a lot of years in jail.  The reciprocal actions in these cases, is designed to be approximately equal to the harm caused by violating the law. In these cases the reciprocal actions, is designed to be just about identical to the damage which is caused by violating the law.(责任编辑:huiyinad)

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