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文化管理学Literature Review

时间:2016-03-25 09:49来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Chapter 2: Literature Review文献综述
 
2.1 Tea Culture2.1茶文化
茶,从古代到现在,不仅仅是一种产品,但也有其文化属性,它可以转变为调整后的文化差异。从Jolliffe声明(2007),它描述了不同的亚文化是茶文化的转型产品,如“茶艺”在中国,“茶”在日本,“下午茶”,在英国,“茶壶”在俄罗斯。此外,茶文化也被当作一种“遗传的,持续的,可持续的,优秀的,精神和创造性的“文化(程、徐、张2010)。其实,茶文化起源于中国,可追溯到公元前2700年(汉2007)。当时,茶叶通常是常用的一种医用草药(汉2007)。
Tea, from ancient times to the present, is not just a product, but also has its cultural attribute, whichcould be transited for adjusted culture differences. From the statement of Jolliffe (2007), it described that diverse sub-cultures were the products of tea culture transformation, such as “art of tea” in China, “they way of tea” in Japan, “afternoon tea” in Great Britain, and “samovar” in Russia. Moreover, tea culture also was treated as a type of “inheritable, continual, sustainable, excellent, spiritual and creative” culture (Cheng, Xu& Zhang 2010). Actually, tea culture was originated from China, which could be tracked back to 2,700 B.C (Han 2007). At that time, tea was usually and commonly used as a sort of herb for medical usage (Han 2007). 
 
随着茶的使用日益普及,茶成为饮料在中国从公元前59年(汉2007)。茶行业的日益普及,也为扩大和发展茶文化提供了基础。唐代从公元618年到公元907年间,茶的普及达到顶峰(程、徐、张2010)。从公元618年到公元907年的同一时期,茶也发挥其文化和经济的影响在整个世界(程、徐、张2010)。越来越多的茶和饮茶的方法原理已传遍世界。With the increasing popularity of tea usage, tea became a drink in China from 59 B.C (Han 2007). Before Chinese Tang Dynasty, China has become the first country to do tea trades, including exporting tea to different countries (Japan, Korea, India and Central Asia Area) (Cheng, Xu& Zhang 2010). The increasing popularity of tea trades also provides a foundation for expanding and developing tea culture. During the period of Tang Dynasty from A.D 618 to A.D 907, the popularity of tea reached to its peak (Cheng, Xu& Zhang 2010). At the same period from A.D 618 to A.D 907, tea also exerted its cultural and economic influences in the entire world (Cheng, Xu& Zhang 2010). The principle of growing tea and the method of drinking tea has been spread all around the world.  
 
Wang (2001) investigated that the core idea of tea culture in China was harmony, which could be found in the art of tea. He also indicated that the principle of Chinese tea culture is a type of visible art and invisible law (Wang 2001). This so-called invisible law means the spirits of tea culture, which was hugely affected by Chinese philosophy in ancient times. The first and famous school of theory was Confucianism, which was aim to be peaceful and moderate (Wang 2001). It also was seen as the central principle of tea culture for pushing great amounts of people to drink tea. The second school of theory was Taoism, which was aim to pursue the natural balance (Wang 2001). Finally, the third school of theory was Buddhism, which was aim to be calm (Wang 2001). Buddhists wish people to do more deep thinking in the process of enjoy tea (Wang 2001). (责任编辑:anne)


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