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Literature Review范文:出游动机领域的文献综述(10)

时间:2016-08-23 09:23来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Hawes (1988) conducted a study of travel-related lifestyle that was base on an age-specific (demography) study. It was focusing on older women. Factor analysis result, showed three major underlying dimension within this group travel, which were labeled as ‘traveler’, ‘laid back’ and ‘dreamer’. The traveler focus on vacation travel orientation and is generally associated with singleness or small household size, activeness, acceptance or liking of excitement and uncertainty, higher income and education. The ‘laid back’ indicates an acceptance of vacation travel but essentially of the domestic, unexciting, unhurried, quite and relaxing, more concerned with indebtedness and less affluent. The ‘dreamer’ reflects an orientation in vicarious thrills and wishing or dreaming substitute for the real thing and television was found to be their main resource of information for travel decision.
Nicolau and Mas (2004) find that personal characteristics such as personal restrictions and socio-demographic and psychographic characteristics relate to the holiday decisions of going on holiday, chosen destination, foreign holidays and multi-destination holidays. A number of studies investigate constraints on travel behavior that arguably differ from general leisure behavior in many ways, such as cost, commitment and durations. It was said that constraints and facilitators operate differently in influencing travel intention and choice. Age is an extremely important travel constraint and Romsa and Blenman (1989) study the vacation patterns of elderly Germans, and Teaff and Turpin (1996) study the older Americans travel behavior. They both agreed that the taking of vacations declines with age.
Socio-economic, physical, psychological, and physiological (age related) constraints play an important position in the underlying processes related to the behavior of elderly vacationer (Romsa et al., 1989). The choices of vacation destination and holiday activities are constrained by the physical situation of seniors. Intergenerational effects also probable operate to impact on the travel of these older persons. Nevertheless, Teaff and Turpin (1996) find that older Americans travel more frequently and longer distances, stay away longer, and rely more on travel agents than other segments of the people. Some evidence, though, shows that travelers take longer vacations after age of retirement. Retirees are significantly more likely to be constrained by disability, perception of age, physical energy, and health conditions.
The family cycle is also a important constraint to travel choice behavior. In a study of the family life cycle (FLC) of German travelers, Opperman (1995) argued that FLC affects travel patterns considerably. There are many aspects of the tourists’ travel pattern relate to the stages of their family life cycle. Destination choice, transportation and usage of accommodation relate to differences in economic status and in discretionary income available for travelling. Lifetime experience, choices of accommodation and destination differ according to age stage. Travel purpose and especially the travel season were influenced by the family life cycle. Children have been traveled as an influence on family travel decision such as in Nickerson and Jurowski (2001) study the influences of children on vacation travel patterns that provide a perspective about planning and development with a view to increasing child satisfaction at the destination.(责任编辑:BUG)

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