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Literature Review范文:出游动机领域的文献综述(11)

时间:2016-08-23 09:23来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
 
Gilber and Hudson (2000) see life cycle as a useful conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the experience of leisure constraints. Many life cycle issues contribute to personal ecology research and researchers concluded that different people do not experience constraints in the similar way. McGehee, N., Loker-Murphy,L. and Uysal, M. (1996) investigate the Australian international pleasure market with used gender and other demographic factors such as marital status, age, education, occupation and income to analyze travel motivation and travel patterns, finding that Australia women and men are motivated differently in their pleasure travel experience. Meric and Hunt (1998) find eco-tourists tend to be middle-aged and have higher education and income levels to reveals the general and specific activity preferences of them. It is likely that selected demographics can act as a determinant of travel preferences, possibly influencing preferred activities and their demographics can act as a constraint on travel intention and behavior.
 
Mayo and Jarvis (1981) claimed out that, ‘a common denominator that probably underlies all forms of leisure travel is the need for variety. Well-adjusted individuals need a balance of consistency and complexity in their lives by seeking consistency in certain domains of experience and complexity in others, consistency theory explains that ‘people, expecting a particular thing to happen, do not want to be confronted by something unexpected’(Mayo and Jarvis, 1981). On the other hand, complexity theory states that ‘novelty, unexpectedness, change, and unpredictability are pursued because they are inherently satisfying’ (Mayo and Jarvis, 1981). They also stated that travel allows people to escape from the boredom of ‘consistency’ and tension allows us to experience ‘complexity’ of novelty, change, and unpredictability.
 
Correspondingly, Iso-Ahola (1980) noted that people search for different levels of stimulation; they avoid either over stimulation (mental and physical fatigue) or boredom (too little stimulation. He claimed that leisure needs change during the life span and across place and social company and that, individuals do not have numerous leisure needs in mind and do not rationalize specific cause of participation if their involvement is intrinsically motivated. Besides, it is important of participants’ feelings of self-determination and competence to ensure satisfaction (Iso-Ahola, 1980).
 
Two types of motivations are: 1) physiological motivations stemming from biological needs, such as food, waste elimination and water, and 2) psychological, motivations stemming from needs created by an individual’s social environment (Mayo and Jarvis, 1981). The latter motivations are learned needs which are influenced by social institutions, such as a need to succeed and attain a reputable place in society. Mayo and Jarvis (1981) noted that ‘in rare cases, some psychological motives become strong enough to overcome physiological survival needs’.(责任编辑:BUG)


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