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Literature Review范文:出游动机领域的文献综述(6)

时间:2016-08-23 09:23来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Push and pull factors have generally been characterized to two separate decisions made at two separate period in time – one focusing on whether to go, the other on where to go. For instance, Dann (1981) noted that ‘once the trip has been decided upon, where to go, what to see or what to do (relating to the specific destinations) can be tackled and this make a conclude that, analytically, both logically and temporally, push factors precede pull factor’.
Although these two factors has been viewed as relating to two distinct decisions, several researchers have distinguished that they should not be viewed as operating entirely independent of each other’s. For example, it has suggested that people travel because they are pushed by their own intrinsic forces and simultaneously pulled by the extrinsic forces such as the destination and its attributes (Cha, McCleary, and Uysal 1995; Uysal and Jurowskil, 1994). However, Crompton (1979) argued, push factors ‘may be useful not only in explaining the initial arousal, energizing, or ‘push; to take a vacation, but may also have directive potential to direct the tourist toward a particular destination’ (p.412).
Several empirical examinations of push and pull factors had been reported in the travel and tourism literature. Of the prior research that examined the students and/or spring break travel market (Butts, F.B., J. Salazar, K. Sapio, and D. Thomas, 1996; Field, 1999; Hobson and Josiam, 1992,1996; Hsu and Sung, 1996,1997; Sirakaya and McLellan, 1997), there have been no investigations of push forces and only a handful of attempts to study the pull factors influencing students’ destination choice decision. In another study, conducted by Hobson and Josiam (1992), students were asked to list their primary reason for choosing a spring break destination and most responses referred to the influence of friends and/or family living near or going to the destination, other reasons referred to destination-related attributes such as the destination having s spring break party reputation, warm weather, affordable pricing, quiet environment, good skiing, or good beaches.
Another study, conducted by Butts et al. (1996), found that the reasons that most attractive students referred to s sunny climate, nature, a wide choice of accommodations, price of accommodations, the destination’s nightlife reputation, and recommendations from others. In Sirakaya and McLellan (1997) study, they asked students to rate the importance of 56 attributes involved in selecting a spring break destination. Factor analysis was then used to reduce the 56 attributes to a set of 9 factors that labeled ‘local hospitality and services,’ ‘trip cost and convenience,’ ‘perceptions of a safe/secure environment,’ ‘change in daily life environment,’ ‘recreation and sporting activities,’ ‘entertainment and drinking opportunities,’ ‘personal and historical link,’ ‘cultural an shopping services,’ and ‘unusual and distant vacation spot.’(责任编辑:BUG)

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