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Literature Review范文:出游动机领域的文献综述(7)

时间:2016-08-23 09:23来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
The most rated factor is local hospitality and services. However, this factor was made up of seven rather diverse attributes: climate, availability of beaches, good accommodations, large hotels, feeling welcomed, friendly residents, and good food. While these attributes may all be highly vital to visitors (thus explaining why they would load together on the same factor), one would expect that the basis of their importance would diverse considerably. It means each attribute may derive its importance or meaning from very different sources and the importance of a particular attribute may well be a function of multiple motivational forces. For example, beaches may be important to respondents because they manage to pay for opportunities for water-based recreation, getting a tan, and socializing with other tourists. Simple said, people may have multiple and possibly very diverse reasons for valuing the same attribute or pull factor.
Psychographics have been recognized as being very meaningful and relevant (Shih, 1986) and very vital means to provide extra information beyond the demographic characteristics (Abbey, 1997). Abbey claimed that psychographic variables produce significant differences between groups of consumers, and these differences are larger than the differences produced by the demographic profiles, thus, psychographics are more useful (Mayo, 1975) than demographics in describing consumers because they better differentiate between them (Ryel & Grasse, 1991).
Various researchers have utilized psychographic data in their studies such as Shih (1986) used values, attitudes, and lifestyles (VALS) to assess whether personal values affect the selection of Pennsylvania as a holiday destination. Pizam and Calantone (1987) used abundant value scales and reported that travel behavior was determined by a person’s general and vacation-specific lifestyle. Menzes and Chandra (1989) used the personality trait descriptors to profile the U.S. tourists visiting far-away destinations in the Far East and compared them with other overseas destination segments. Kassarjian (1971) used the personality concept to clarify consumer product and media choice, risk taken, and persuasibility.
Rokeach (1979) give a definition to values as ‘beliefs about desirable goals and modes of conduct’(p.41). Values are criteria that people use to direct their behavior, evaluate, and judge themselves and others, come to a decision what is worth believing in and doing and it also determine social behavior (Rokeach, 1979). Rokeach (1973) argued that the differences in peoples’ cultural values determine differences in their behavior because values determine cultural differences in thinking, activities, attitudes, motivations, and human needs.
It said that values control behavioral variables that interact with and influence each other. For example, values of visitors provide an indication of the visitors’ personality (Pitts & Woodside, 1986), values represent a alternate for personality traits (Dhalla & Mahatto, 1976; Howard, 1977). Values manipulate peoples’ motivations (Bailey, 1991). Values are mainly useful in the assessment of the customer’s motivation (Dichter, 1984; Munson, 1984). They are a means to better understand consumer motivations (Henry, 1976; Kahle, 91984; Leesig, 1976; Vinson, Scott, & Lamont, 1977) because it allow marketers to better understand the individual’s motives in making travel decisions (Pitts & Woodside, 1986). Pitts and Woodside (1986) claimed that travel motivation is directly influence by peoples’ values. For example, the motivation to travel to New Zealand to experience challenge and adventure or to spend a quiet vacation close to origin places is determine by travelers’ values.(责任编辑:BUG)

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