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Literature Review范文:出游动机领域的文献综述(8)

时间:2016-08-23 09:23来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
 
Values also symbolize the preferences for actions (Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1951). Value profiles allow for differentiating between those who participate in particular travel-related activity behavior (Pitts & Woodside, 1986). It also appears to determine people’s lifestyle (Dhalla & Mahatto, 1976; Howard, 1977). Mitchell (1983) used a VALS (value-lifestyle) typology to separate Americans into nine different lifestyle types, which were further group in four categories based on their values, each of these groups with different travel habits.
 
The importance of the personality characteristics of the individual, in combination with other psychographic factors was stressed (Plog, 1974). Plog (1991) reported that personality determines destination travel patterns and also travelers’ motivation as well as activities. Allocentric travelers tend to travel to unfamiliar and unique destination such as China and Africa; they are active, independent, motivated by novelty, discovery, and meeting with new people, and focus on varied activities. Psychocentric travelers tend to visit familiar and well-established locations such as Hawaii; they are less active, prefer to travel in groups, and participate in common activities (Plog, 1972).
 
Leisure-oriented traveler were more intrinsically motivated (e.g., by doing things for their own sake, obtaining purely internal rewards only) than those who were extrinsically motivated (e.g., by money or social approval) (Ingham, 1986). Intrinsically motivated individual also could cope better with stressful life events and activities (Maddi & Kobasa, 1981).
 
Personality found to be a major determinant of preferences for activities as well. In a study of high school student activity participation, Howard (1976) acknowledged a high correlation between personality measures and preferences for leisure activities. Eysenck (1976, 1981) found that extroverts and introverts engaged in different activities. Extroverts is those who needed to have people around them, easygoing, liked socializing and preferred highly social activities such as parties while introverts who tended to be shy and cautions preferred a well-ordered lifestyle, avoided social activities and excitement. Besides, it was noted that individuals who sought sensation spent more time engaged in highly stimulating and risky activities than those who did not seek sensation (Zuckerman, 1979). Plog (1991) reported that the energy (high energy) and lethargy (low energy) level determines various activities levels between tourists
 
Iso-Ahola (1980) argued that the relationship between motivation and activities was affected by different social environment as well as social influences. For example, low correlations between motivation and the degree and extent of activity were found. This might be due to a number of problems such as the lack of specifications of the distinct activities in surveys, the respondents’ lack of time or finance to participate in activities, lack of the facilities available (Ruskin & Shamir, 1984), information about activities, perceived incompetence, or sociocultural constraints (Iso-Ahola & Mannell, 1985).(责任编辑:BUG)


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