Handbook Proposal Abstract introductionLiterature Review outline swot分析法 pest分析法 pestel analysis case study Methodology Reference 论文题目选题


时间:2016-11-29 16:43来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Chapter 1:
This section provides a review of literatures on pension rights portability as well as studies on its possible link to labor mobility. Some basic definitions are also established to lay a foundation for further discussion in later chapters.
Pension rights portability
Traditionally, pension portability was defined as the ability to carry a pension from one pension plan to another. More recently, it is understood as the ability to preserve the value of pension benefits when changing job.
Pension portability is the capacity to preserve the actuarial value of accrued pension rights when switching jobs. A pension scheme lacking full portability imposes a portability loss on workers who change to another scheme. The portability loss is the shortfall of retirement benefits from those that would have been paid if there had been no change in the pension scheme membership due to a change in jobs (Andrietti, 2001; Blake and Orszag, 1997 p.10).
Within-borders pension portability refers to the preservation of pension rights accrued by workers moving within national borders, being strictly tied to country specific regulations and pension plan design choices. Cross-border pension portability refers to the safeguard of pension rights accrued by workers moving to a different country. In this case differences in country specific pension regulations, including fiscal and pension plan design aspects, enter into the picture putting additional considerable factors in analysing the link between pension and labour mobility.
In defined contribution (DC) pension schemes, contributions are accumulated in an individual savings account that is eventually used to buy an annuity or to pay programmed withdrawals to the worker when (s)he retires. Usually, defined contribution schemes have full or almost full portability: after a short vesting period, workers assume ownership of their accounts and can take their savings with them when they change to another pension scheme (Andrietti, 2001; Blake and Orszag, 1997 p.10).
In defined benefit (DB) pension schemes, the sponsor of the plan promises a pension that usually depends on final wages and the number of years of service. Workers who leave the scheme earlier receive a pension based on the salary and years of service at the moment of leaving. Early leavers tend to suffer a portability loss in defined benefits schemes. In some cases, the pension rights in DB schemes can be transferred to the new pension scheme when the worker switches jobs. The worker will eventually receive one pension that will account for the service in both plans, but most DB schemes are designed in such a way that workers who switch jobs suffer a loss of pension rights.(责任编辑:BUG)

UK Thesis Base Contacts

Europe (24-hours)
china (24-hours)
全天候24小时在线客服 QQ:1455780998