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组织学论文该如何写Organization Paper

时间:2014-07-02 15:47来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
企业在当今世界正在寻求组织结构,以帮助可以建立一个成功的组织。组织结构作为基础,以确保各部门以及员工知向正确的方向进行努力。一般情况下有两个组织、夏普和AT&T可以纳入日常业务的组织结构。每个组织将进行比较和对比以此来衡量对于组织结构产生的影响。

AT&T系统利用的三个功能管理建立一个动态的组织。通过引入组织结构的公司,每个员工可以创建一个有效的工作环境。AT&T已经创建了一个组织结构图便于员工提供一个报告结构。另外组织结构图还提供了每个部门利用两个垂直分化以及水平分化在美国电话电报公司(AT&T)得以发展。

 
Businesses in today’s world are looking to organizational structure to assist with building a successful organization. Organizational structure is used as a foundation to ensure each department as well as employee knows the proper direction to take. There are two organizations, The Sharp and AT&T, which incorporate organizational structure in the day-to-day business. Each organization will be evaluated to compare and contrast the impact of organizational structure.
 
 
AT&T utilizes the three functions of management to build a dynamic organization. By introducing organizational structure to the corporation, an effective working environment is created for each employee. Now AT&T has created an organizational chart to provide a reporting structure for employees to follow. The organizational chart also provides where each department stands in the corporation. Both vertical differentiation as well as horizontal differentiation is utilized in AT&T.
 
The chief executive officer along with the human resources department have worked together to create an organizational chart for the Mission Systems sector of AT&T.
 
The program manager is at the top of the chart. His primary function is to oversee the sector and works with the assistant program managers. The assistant program managers work with the program manager to task the engineers with assignments to be completed. The engineers perform a variety of services to our customers under the supervision of the assistant program managers. The administrative assistants perform clerical duties to provide support to the engineers, assistant program managers, program manager, and the customers on various task assignments. The human resource department provides assistance to the whole organization. This varies from hiring employees to terminating employees, compensation, benefits, employee assistance, and legal issues. The business and finance department assists the program manager and the contracts department with the budget of each contract that is awarded to the organization. The facilities department ensures that the building is safe and hazard free for the employees. This department fixes structures and provides evacuation plans for the safety of all employees. The contracts department reviews, analyzes, and evaluates information according to each contracts modification that the organization has been awarded. Additional the department ensures that all working functions are based on each exact contract.
 
AT&T displays both “vertical and horizontal dimensions of organizational structure. Vertical structure, which includes issues of authority, hierarchy, delegation, and decentralization. Horizontal structure, which includes functional, divisional, and matrix forms” (Bateman, T. & Snell, S., 2007).
 
Vertical structure relates to authority in organizations. Managers are able to make decisions to tell employees what to do. This is at hierarchy level. For example, the program manager has authority to give an employee a task to be competed. Delegation is the tasking of an assignment to employees. Decentralization is where the assistant program managers are to make important decisions. This is not a hierarchy level manager; this is a lower level manager. Many times at AT&T, the assistant program managers are given the opportunity to make important decisions on tasking in support of the customers.
 
Horizontal structure relates to the functional organization. This is where departments within the organization are grouped together by business functions. At AT&T, there are human resources, business and finance, facilities, and contracts. Now the divisional organization has grouped departments by the functions they provide. For example, business, finance, and contracts are all grouped together. Facilities and security are grouped together. The matrix organization refers to dual reporting managers. For example, at AT&T the engineers report to the assistant program managers as well as the program manager on tasking assignments. The employee reports to a divisional and functional manager. The matrix organization refers to working with single organizations such as a supplier, production, and distributors to produce products and services. In this case, AT&T conducts business with such suppliers and distributors in such a manner to produce the products and services needed.
 
The Sharp is dedicated to take in the at-risk students with behavioral problems from diverse background and to rehabilitate them so that they can be place back into their home school district with a good chance to become an academic success. In the Sharp schools, fewer and fewer parents are truly involved in their child's education, especially the parents of the kids who end up in our juvenile justice system. The first obstacle to Sharp solution is the difficulty in simply getting the kids to classes in the first place. Many of our youths who are in the juvenile system are there because they are "at risk", and the least likely to attend school on a regular basis, or apply themselves while they are there.
 
The Sharp school system has therefore expanded and adapted to include an ever-increasing amount of teachers, teacher assistants, administrative assistants, education and alternative educational programs for these kids. There are many new programs being implemented by our Administrators and Administrator Assistants in the juvenile justice system, including peer review, work study, training, mentoring and community action programs, which aim to move these kids out of the perpetual downward cycle of the traditional juvenile system, and towards productive citizenship.
 
The funding for our school programs that would most benefit and target the youth entering the juvenile education system has been drastically cut in recent years in favor of the current push for standardized testing reform and achievement scores. The kids in the juvenile system, as a rule, do not benefit from the funding for these areas, as they typically drag these scores down and are not the identified groups to receive such funding.
 
Sharp organization have dedicated structured administrators and teachers, you can have a very flat organization with equal members that communicate well. The administrators are well organized with good communication skills and an organizational chart, which includes a structured reporting system. Each department has its own strengths and weaknesses. According to a matrix structure, it “has made employees, usually those at the lower levels, who are closest to customers extremely important. They are an excellent source of knowledge and implement changes that directly impact performance. Giving this group more input into certain decision-making activities can result in increased firm performance”. (Galbraith, J., R., 1995)
 
According to Bowditch, James L. and Anthony F. Buono, A Primer on Organizational Behavior, 4th, John Wiley & Sons, 1997) “that while equity theory was originally concerned with differences in pay, it may be applied to other forms of tangible and intangible rewards in the workplace. That is, if any input is not balanced with some fair output, the motivation process will be difficult. Supervisors must manage the perception of fairness in the mind of each employee”. (Bowditch and Buono 1997)
 
In summary both organizations, AT&T and Sharp both display a type of organizational structure. Each organization has some different functions as well as departments; however, both share some similar qualities. “Companies are restructured to better respond to customer demands and competition. Sometimes restructurings are necessary to reduce costs. Good managers are constantly looking for opportunities to improve organizational performance, and the organization’s structure can offer such possibilities.” (MGT 330, Week 3). Each organization has implemented organizational structure to ensure all departments are run smoothly and managers are able to better serve the needs of the employees.
 
References   

 
Bateman, Thomas S., and Scott A. Snell. Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World. 7th Ed. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2007.
 
Bowditch and Buono note (see Bowditch, James L. and Anthony F. Buono, A Primer on
 
Organizational Behavior, 4th, John Wiley & Sons, 1997)
 
Galbraith, J., R., (1995) Designing Organizations: An Executive Briefing on Strategy,
 
Structure and Process, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1995.
 
MGT330 Week three, Management: Theory, Practice, and Application, rEsource. Retrieved January 24, 2007 from University of Phoenix, Resource, MGT/330 –
 
Management: Theory, Practice, and Application Course Web site:
 
(责任编辑:BUG)


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