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管理学留学生论文methodology部分写作参考

时间:2015-11-29 16:25:52 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
留学生论文methodology部分写作参考

使用面试技巧的理由
Justifications For The Interview Technique
 
研究方法论使用基本原理,本章中讨论使用方法论的理由。本章解释了使用面试技巧的理由,和在项目中使用的调查问卷中的问题的原因。抽样过程和采访内容,也突出显示了数据是如何收集,随后分析也在本章中讨论。
这时候,它可能和重新讨论我们的研究的目的和目标是相关的,即在工作组了解文化多样性的影响,和当前的管理风格——有效性。为了未来,探索这里是否有更好的方法管理多样性。在前面两章中讨论的核心研究问题是希望正确的方向上把光和点投向我们,为了去寻找一个合适的关于我们的目的的说明。
为了解决组织文化通过改变逐步形成到什么程度的问题,通过各种团体感知的组织文化必须被建立。影响文化的因素,内部多样性群体相互影响的方式被清楚地描绘。在一个团体水平上文化多样性的管理,它对工作文化的影响也可以理解为在更大的细节上。解码在多元化工作小组中最有效的管理风格,将意味着发展全面了解关于管理多样性所需的能力。
为了建立文化信息,使用问卷调查来收集。影响文化的因素被分析,通过使用可用的文档关于使命陈述,视觉,新闻信件等。工作组的多样性是如何影响文化的,它是如何被衡量和减轻,从与不同的员工面谈被实现。
 
The research methodology used rationale and justifications behind using the methodology are discussed in this chapter. This chapter explains the justifications for the interview technique that was utilised, and the reasoning's for the questions in the survey questionnaire used in the project. The sampling process and interview content, as well as highlighting how the data that was collected was subsequently analysed are also discussed in this chapter.
 
重新讨论研究的目的-Revisiting the Purpose of the Research
 
At this point it may be pertinent to revisit the purpose and objective of our study i.e. understanding the influence of cultural diversity on working groups, current styles of management -its effectiveness, and exploring if there is a better way of managing diversity for future. The central research questions discussed in the previous two chapters are hoped to throw some light and point us in the right direction for finding a suitable elucidation to our purpose.
 
To address the question of how far is the culture of the organization evolved through the changes, the organization culture as perceived by the various groups has to be established. The factors that influence the culture, and the ways in which the internal diversity group interplays are to be clearly delineated. The management of cultural diversity at a group level, its impact on working culture are also to be understood in a greater detail. Decoding the management style which can be the most effective in context of culturally diverse working groups, would mean developing a comprehensive understanding of the competencies needed for managing diversity.#p#分页标题#e#
 
In order to establish the culture information was gathered using a questionnaire. The factors that influence the culture were analyzed by using the available documentation on mission statements, vision, news letters, etc. How diversity of working groups effects culture, how is it being measured and mitigated is realized from the interviews talks with different employees. An overview of what is preferred culture was also analyzed from the survey. Finally, the management style would be the most effective in context of culturally diverse working groups was arrived at by filtering the information through the various lenses of multi-perspectivism, and reinforcing recommendations with appropriate theories.
 
技巧的讨论-Discussion of Technique
 
Research has been defined in a number of different ways.A widely accepted definition of research is "a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue," Creswell (2008).Research according to Burns (1997) research is a "systematic investigation to find answers to a problem."
 
Research can be typified into different categories based on the perspectives of: (a) applications of the findings; (b) objectives of study, and (c) the mode of enquiry. Figure 3.1 gives the classification of the types of research (Kumar, 2011). The classification of the types of research based on the perspectives is not mutually exclusive. A research study that is classified from the view point of application can also be classified from the other perspectives of objective and modes of enquiry.
 
Similarly, considering the classification of the current research in terms of perspectives, it becomes unclear to which particular perspective can it be related or, if there are traces of all three elements.
 
Figure 3. Types of Research (Kumar 2011)
 
Pure Research often involves the testing of hypotheses related to specialised and abstract components which may or may not have practical applications is not suited to the current CRQ's. On the other hand Applied Researchinvolves techniques, procedures and methods which form the body of research method.Information is collected about various aspects of a situation/ problem, can be used in various ways such as for policy formation, administration, and enhancing the understanding of a phenomenon.
 
Descriptive Study is used to 'portray an accurate profile of persons, events or situations' Saunders et. al. (2007). The main purpose of this kind is to describe what is prevalent with respect to an issue or problem under study. Correlational Study emphasizes on discovering and or establishing the existence of a relationship/association/ interdependence between two or more aspects of the situation.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Explanatory Study attempts to establish causal relationships through study of a particular situation, explaining the interactions of the variables involved. Exploratory Study is a technique used primarily to clarify understanding of an issue or problem, using interviewing of experts in the issue and focus groups as the methodology.
 
Although, theoretically, a research study can be classified in one of the above objective - perspective categories, in practice most research studies are a combination of three of the above. With reference to the central research questions of this project a combination of correlational, explanatory and exploratory study approaches was seen to be the most effective way forward. The next perspective of the typology is concerned with the process that is adopted for finding answers to the research questions.
 
The different research strategies that are available, deciding on which are most likely to help us answer our research questions and deliver our objectives, are influenced by variables such as knowledge, time and resources. It is important to remember and reiterate that the strategies are not considered mutually exclusive, with interaction and overlap likely and often desired. The broad classification of research based on the enquiry is:(a) the structured approach - quantitative approach, (b) the unstructured approach - the qualitative approach.
 
Defining the terms quantitative and qualitative data can help identify the most likely/effective techniques to gathering data in the current case. Quantitative data is mainly associated with a numerical or statistical approach to data collection and analysis e.g. questionnaires, whilst qualitative data is more usually associated with collection and analysis of non-numerical data e.g. interviews. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches have their strengths and weakness, advantages and disadvantages. As suggested in the literature it is proposed to use both approaches to answer the central research questions.
 
A quantitative approach is useful to quantify the variation in a phenomenon, situation, problem or issue. One of the preliminary research questions is establishing the existent style of management, which readily extends for the use of this approach. Quantitative research is efficient for conducting audience segmentation, which is expected to prove effective for realizing how a particular group viewed the management style.The advantages provided by the quantitative research conducted through survey questions were observed to provide guidance and directions in using other approaches in answering the rest of the questions.
 
However, it is noted that all the questions posed at the onset of the project are not best studied using quantitative methods alone. The understanding of the competencies of current management to effectively handle diversity, which have individual perspective,is better studied using qualitative methods. Based on Saunderset al., (2007) consideration that semi-structured and unstructured interviews (often referred to as qualitative research interviews) are best suited to areas where the study includes an exploratory element. The individual's perceptions of the situation are keys and where an element of personal contact may prove helpful - all were significant elements in our research and project.#p#分页标题#e#
 
With respect to generalizability of the data generated, the project had some elements of a single case study. Appropriate cautions were taken to ensure that were enough variables involved to make the data generally transferable to other investigations. Similarly, it was hoped that a relationship could be proved between the current findings and the theories discussed in the literature review, which would further validate the approach used.
 
取样-怎样,谁 & 为什么-Sampling - How, Who & Why
 
Purposive or Judgemental sampling (Saunders et. al., 2007) enables the use of our judgement to select cases that will best enable answering the research questions and to meet your objectives. This purposive sampling technique was used for our project.
 
The sample for answering questionnaire was a generalized selection of team members where there were at least members from two different national working cultures working together. As detailed in(Appendix), several members of Doosan Power Systems were selected for interview. The sample ranged in detail from members of the company's Business Stream Directors to departmental managers and other senior members of the organisation. The prospective interviewees were taken from the full spectrum of the organization. This was further developed by use of a 'slicing' approach as detailed in the next section.
 
分层采集-怎样,谁 & 为什么Slicing - How, Who & Why
 
As can be seen from Figure 3.2 the prospective interviewees were taken from three specific areas of the organisation which could be broadly described as being in parallel with the 'Administration', 'Technical' and the 'Others' categories. This was based on Harris &Obonga's (1998) three sub-cultures of management discussed in Chapter 2. This 'slice' through the organisation was designed specifically to provide a method of analysing the data through comparing and contrasting the findings relative to the nominated perspective.
 
It was hoped that this sampling method would be considered robust and give the best opportunity of reflecting reality on subsequent analysis and interpretation of the captured data.
 
Figure 3. Slicing of Organization for Sampling (Hannigan, 2008)
 
数据的细节——主要&辅助数据收集-Data Details - Primary& Secondary Data Collection
 
问卷-Questionnaire
 
The primary data was gathered constituted the responses to the survey questionnaire (Appendix).The Harrison's questionnaire "Diagnosing Organisation Ideology", Beech et al (2002), was adapted to the purpose of this case study and shortened in view of the wide range of employees of the organization.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Data collection was extended for each theory by asking questions relating to the existing organisational culture and the respondent's ideal culture (Harrison model); and examining Martin's three perspectives by segmenting the views of the organisation's hierarchy. A weighted scoring system to determine the dominant culture within the Harrison model and to compile the responses to the Martin questions.
 
The anonymity of the employees was maintained by collecting responses through an online questionnaire hosted through a generic website. 120 members were chosen across different groups to participate in the survey, with an expectation of 25% responses. A total 44 respondents completed the questionnaire giving a reasonable sample for getting flavour of the current and preferred management styles.
 
采访-Interview
 
Whilst the primary data collected from the questionnaire allowed analysis of each theory, it more information was required to both verify the outcomes of the questionnaires and probe deeper. To assess the influence of diversity on the culture, management and inturn the leadership, seondary data was gathered in the form of personal interviews. Interview questions were devised (Appendix) and interviews were conducted in person with employees from each hierarchical level within the organisation. Though a set of questions were selected for the interview - it was decided that the wording would be adapted to the different interviewees as long as the intent of the questions remained unchanged.
 
The advantages and disadvantages of secondary data were fully considered prior its use. Whilst advantages such as access to large amounts of verifiable data on a rapid basis were obvious, from the perspective of this particular study it was hoped that analysis of interviews with senior Doosan staff may lead to some unforeseen links or answers to the research questions. Similarly, cognisance was given to the dangers of unsuitability or poor quality of such secondary data.
 
文件-Documentation
 
To develop deeper understanding on the elements of culture, various sources of information such as company bulletins, business plans, mission statements and information available in the public domain were interrogated. The central paradigm was developed based on the documentations and supported by findings from the questionnaire and interview analysis.
 
The same documentation, questionnaire and interview analysis were further used to investigate the culture and culture management in each of the organisations.
 
数据分析-方法论-Data Analysis - Methodology
 
There are a many theories on culture, in literature. Applying one theory and a single method of data collection may not give a true picture of the culture, and effects of diversity on culture in an organisation. Using more than one theoretical perspective and method of collecting information provides a greater understanding of the culture and a more robust outcome. Hard work and focus is required to get co-operation from colleagues to complete questionnaires.#p#分页标题#e#
 
The cultural models of Triandis, Trompenaars, and Hofestede which take into account the effects of national culture on organisational culture are helpful in understanding the influences that the change in ownership i.e., U. K to Japan to Korea would have on the culture. The impact on the culture with change in the focus to dealing with international clients was also attempted be understood with these models.
 
The Harrison and Martin models determine culture at an organisational level. Williams et al (1989) have criticised Harrison's work as lacking empirical evidence. Such a criticism gave reasoning to the selection of this model, to reflect on how sufficient, relevant and effective data, collected empirically, can or cannot substantiate his theory. Harrison's typology offers a tangible and understandable way to conceptualise culture in organisations.
 
Martin's model takes cultural analysis a stage further: whilst recognising there may be a single, strong culture (integrated), a further two perspectives (differentiated and fragmented) emphasise the possibility of conflict and lack of consensus within an organisation. Different cultures can co-exist in an organisation as the notion of subculture acknowledges.
 
Harrison considers, "What type of culture dominates within an organisation?" Martin looks at, "How is culture structured within an organisation?" Hence, the models highlight different aspects of organisational culture and supplement each other. Applying both models would provide a deeper understanding of an organisation's culture and establishing the presence of sub-cultures
 
Organisational culture can be elusive. The cultural web, developed by Johnson and Scholes' provides an extremely robust analysis tool for looking at and understanding of organisational structure that has been subject to changes. Hence, the use of the cultural web in understanding changing culture and thereby deciphering factors influencing culture change was certainly pertinent for this project.
 
Using Schein's model, the understanding of paradoxical organisational behaviours becomes apparent. For instance, an organisation can profess highly aesthetic and moral standards at the one level of Schein's model while simultaneously displaying curiously opposing behaviour at the other levels of culture. Superficially, organisational rewards can imply one organisational norm but at the deepest level it can translate into something completely different. This insight offers an understanding of the difficulty that organisational newcomers have in assimilating organisational culture and why it takes time to become acclimatized. This becomes crucial when there is a diversity factor imposed by ethnicity of team members.
 
The use of this model sits well with the premise of this project as Schein's model also explains why managers trying to manage culture usually fail to achieve their goals. Merely understanding culture at the deepest level may be insufficient to efficient management. This might be because the dynamics of competenciesto deal with diversity, though inherent to majority of people are not consciously practiced.#p#分页标题#e#
 
For a learning manager, the key to successful management of cultural diversity, would mean harnessing a comprehensive understanding of culture; developing competencies for managing diversity and forging a tool-kit that would aid in the long run
 
方法论-摘要-Methodology - Summary
 
We are now in a position to move to the next stage of our project = to summarize our results obtained from following the methods outlined in the methodology. It would be fair to suggest that our quantitativeresearch will have informed us of the onan answer to the first of our central research questions. We can then proceed to answer the second question by drawing further on the same data. Based on the review of the quantitative data we can move to collect further information to answer the third of our questions before attempting to answer the fourth question through our findings and discussion.
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