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关系信息流程与技术在客户关系管理中的作用 (留学论文methodology范文参考)

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关系信息流程与技术在客户关系管理中的作用 (留学论文methodology范文参考)
The Role of Relational Information Process and Technology on Customer Relationship Management
 
通过问卷调查收集第一手资料。研究方法是演绎的,因为数据已被收集的研究过程和理论已被开发作为数据分析的结果。
这项研究从未在巴基斯坦进行,因此通过问卷调查收集了主要信息。定量分析技术,然后用于绘制干扰从现有的客户关系,从这个数据。收集的信息是在一个标准化的形式从已知人群的样本,以创建可量化的数据方面的变量的数量。
 
Table of Contents
 
Chapter 3: Methodology
 
3.1 Research type
3.2 Data Type and Research Period
3.3 Hypothesis Development
3.4 Theoretical Framework
3.4.1 Conceptual Definition and Operational Definition
3.4.2 Theoretical Justification
3.5 Information gathering and Sampling Procedure
3.5.1 Survey Design
3.5.2 Population, Working Population and Planned Survey
3.5.3 Sample size Consideration
3.5.4 Choice of Sampling techniques
3.5.5 Instrumentation
3.5.6 Field work and Respondent Profile
3.6 Regression Model
 
Chapter 3: Methodology
3.1 Research type
Primary research was conducted to gather first hand information through questionnaire. Research approach was deductive since data has been collected for the research process and a theory has been developed as a result of data analysis.
 
3.2 Data Type and Research Period
This study has never been conducted in Pakistan, thus primary information was collected through questionnaires. Quantitative analytical techniques were then used to draw interference from this data regarding existing customer relationships. The collection of information was done in a standardized form from samples of known populations to create quantifiable data with regard to number of variables.
 
The research period for this research was from September 2014 to April 2015.
 
3.3 Hypothesis Development
: Customer Relationship Orientation and Relational Information Process has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.
 
Customer Relationship orientation and Relational information process is about the significance of creating a relationship of the company and its customers in regards to how well they know the company, are hey satisfied with services. (Friend and Jhonson, 2014)
 
: Customer Centric Management and Relational Information Process has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Customer Centric management and relational marketing talks about the significance of prioritizing the customers with the use of relational information process (Trainor et al. 2014)
 
: Customer Centric Management has a negative significant impact on Relational Information Process and Relational Information Process has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.
 
Customer Centric management and relational marketing talks about the significance of prioritizing the customers with the use of relational information process (Jayachandran et al. 2005)
 
: Social Rapport and Share of Purchase intention has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.
 
Social Rapport and share of purchase talks about the effect of social repute of the company and how that will lead to an increase of sales. (Yim et al. 2008)
 
: Staff Trust and Share of Purchase intention has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.
 
Staff trust and share of purchase intention have a significance relation as the people usually prioritize the companies whose staff is nice to them as they feel that they are the part of the company (Han and Hyun, 2015).
 
: Share of purchase has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.
 
Share of purchase intention talks about the effect of customer relationship performance on the sales and performance of the company (Balakrishnan et al. 2014).
 
Relational Information process has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.
 
Relational information process is relationship marketing, where you make the customers feel as if they are the part of the company using various techniques (Jayachandran et al. 2005).
 
: Firm Trust and Share of Purchase intention has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.
 
Firm Trust and share of purchase intention talks about how the people respond if they know the company, it can have a positive affect on share of purchase. It further would enhance the Customer Relationship performance (Moreno et al. 2014).
 
: Service Quality and Share of Purchase intention has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.
 
Service quality talks about the type of the quality a company offers and its linkage is directly affecting the share of purchase. If the quality is good, it will enhance the Customer Relationship performance (Malhotra et al. 2013)
 
: Customer Firm Affection and Share of Purchase intention has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Customer firm affection and share of purchase talk about the increase in sales and purchasing if a customer has more affection towards the company and how its enhances Customer relationship performance (Thaichon et al. 2014).
 
: CRM Technology has a positive significant impact on Customer Relationship performance.
 
CRM Technology talks about the various modes of technology used by a company to achieve customer relationship performance. The use of databases and analyzing software’s play a part in it and make the process efficient (Jayachandran et al. 2005)
 
3.4 Theoretical Framework
 
3.4.1 Conceptual Definition and Operational Definition
Customer Relationship orientation
 
This process includes customer intelligence gathering, consumer segmentation, creating worth by differentiation and managing consumer worth (Reijonan and Laukkanen, 2010)
 
It means to retain customers focusing on forming long term relationships as their considered as a valuable asset. It focuses on customer needs and satisfaction.
 
Customer Centric management system
 
The degree to which firms tailor their business processes and systems toward serving customers is referred to as customer-centric management systems (Jayachandran et al. 2005).
 
It means to coordinate activities to enhance the quality and experience for the customers. It adds value to the organization enabling it to differentiate itself from its competitors
 
Social Rapport
 
Rapport is a term used to describe a relationship between people, such as friends, colleagues, or a therapist and client. Rapport is based on mutual like, trust, and respect (Yim et al. 2008).
 
It can be defined as the social relationship between the customers and the employees and staff.
 
Staff Trust
 
Trust is regarded as an essential key to maintaining continuity in the customer provider relationship (Han and Hyun, 2015)
 
It can be defined as the confidence a customer has about the service provided by the staff.
 
Firm Trust
 
Trust is regarded as an essential key to maintaining continuity in the customer provider relationship (Han and Hyun, 2015)
 
It can be defined as the confidence a customer has about the service provided by the firm.
 
Service Quality
 
An assessment of how well a delivered service conforms to the clients expectation (Malhotra et al. 2013)#p#分页标题#e#
 
It can be defined as the service provided to the customer according to their needs and wants.
 
Customer Firm Affection
 
Affective commitment is an predecessor of both customer retention and customer share development (Verhoef, 2003).
 
It can be defined as intimacy, passion or commitment a customer feels towards a firm.
 
Relational Information Process
 
CRM relational information processes facilitates customer-based relational performance and in turn enhances profit (Chang et al. 2014)
 
It means to enable customers to interact with the company and gather customer information through internal and external sources. Moreover it can be used to develop customer profiles, segment markets and assess customer retention behavior.
 
Share of Purchase Intention
 
While purchase intention referred to the subjective judgment by the consumers that is reflected after general evaluation to buy products or services (Hsu, 1987)
 
It can be defined as the frequency of purchasing a product brand or service.
 
CRM technology Use
 
Research suggested that implementing CRM technology enabled them to communicate much better with their customers and to help customers manage their own needs like information reciprocity (Jayachandra et al. 2005)
 
It is to measure which technological tool helps more in maintaining customer relationship via analyzing and evaluating trends through databases.
 
Customer Relationship Management
 
Customer relationship management is a system that is used by a firm or company to manage it is customers; both present and future (Jayachandra et al. 2005)
 
It means to measure how much a business unit has performed with respect to achieving customer satisfaction and retaining its customers in relation to its competitors.
 
3.4.2 Theoretical Justification
Variable
 
Expected Sign
 
Theoretical Justification
 
Customer Relationship Management
 
+
 
Jayachandran et al. (2005),
 
Trainor et al. (2014),
 
Stein et al. (2013)
 
Customer Relationship Orientation
 
+
 
Friend and Jhonson (2014),
 
Jayachandran et al. (2005)
 
#p#分页标题#e#
Customer centric Management
 
+/-
 
Trainor et al. (2014),
 
Jayachandran et al. (2005)
 
Social Rapport
 
+
 
Trainor et al. (2014),
 
Yim et al. (2008)
 
Staff Trust
 
+
 
Han and Huyn (2015),
 
Yim et al. (2008)
 
Firms Trust
 
+
 
Moreno et al. (2014),
 
Yim et al. (2008)
 
Service Quality
 
+
 
Malhotra et al. (2013),
 
Yim et al. (2008)
 
Customer Firm Affection
 
+
 
Thaichon et al. (2014),
 
Yim et al. (2008)
 
CRM technology use
 
+
 
Moreno (2014),
 
Jayachandran et al. (2005)
 
Relational Information Process
 
+
 
Chang et al. (2014),
 
Jayachandran et al. (2005)
 
Share of Purchase Intention
 
+
 
Balakrishnan et al. (2014),
 
Hsu (1987)
 
3.5 Information gathering and Sampling Procedure
3.5.1 Survey Design
It was a primary research, and questionnaires were used to collect first hand data. It is the most cost efficient and cost effective method to collect the data for the whole population. In a population of 350, it was randomly distributed.
 
3.5.2 Population, Working Population and Planned Survey
According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was 6,318,745. An
 
Estimate in July 2014 put the population of the Lahore agglomeration at 7,566,000. A quantitative method approach is used for the analysis. People who own a business or have an association to a particular brand are the target population of the research. Target population of 350 employs, is used job oriented, businessman, and potential customers. The essential reason for such target audience is the fact that these are the people who are switching to new modes of retaining customer because of changing trends. It includes Structured questionnaires would be circulated among the correspondents, in different areas of Lahore, so that the result could be generalized.#p#分页标题#e#
 
3.5.3 Sample size Consideration
Sampling is the process of obtaining information from a subset (sample) of a larger group (population). Probability sampling will be carried out under which simple random sampling method will be followed.
 
Simple random sampling is a sampling process that ensures that each element in the population will have an equal chance of being included in the sample. The group of individuals that were brought under analysis is a random sample of people who are employs or own a business. From the 360 questionnaires distributed, the ones completed and selected for analysis were 350 giving a response rate of 97%.
 
The random selection helps to avoid any bias of age, gender, or experience ranging from the age of 24 and above or under. In case of finding out the role of retaining customers with help of relational information process or technology impact such as data warehousing of profitable customers.
 
3.5.4 Choice of Sampling techniques
Having chosen structured questionnaires for the data collection technique, the time horizon will be a cross functional study as the data will only be collected by the respondents once. Given that the research that is conducted has time constraints, cross functional study would seem to be appropriate. Structured equation method with multiple regression is used to analyze the data. Along with AMOS and SPSS software’s.
 
3.5.5 Instrumentation
For this study structured questionnaires have been derived from two different theoretical frameworks, the main questionnaire is derived from Jayachandran et al. (2005) and support questions from Yim et al. (2008). The questions further have been modified to fit the criteria of this study.
 
The questionnaire was divided into 3 sections. The first section tested the dependent variable, which is customer relationship management.
 
The second section has tested all of our independent variables such as relational information process, CRM technology use, share of purchase intention, customer relationship orientation, customer centric management, social rapport, firm trust, service quality, customer firm affection, and staff trust.
 
The third section has tested the demographics such as gender, income, educational qualification, and experience on the job, job classification, management position and age.
 
The questions for the variables were measured by Likert scale, each item will be measured by a scale with options ranging from “1=Strongly Disagree” to “7=Strongly Agree”.
 
3.5.6 Field work and Respondent Profile
The questionnaires were distributed among a sample size of 350 employees. The different categories among which the questionnaires will be distributed will include the following:#p#分页标题#e#
 
Firstly the shops in Gulberg liberty, MM Alam road, Main Market; and Defence H and Y-block markets. Secondly the local bus transport service such as Abdullah Travels, Faisal Movers, Bilal Travels and Jinnah Terminal Thokar Niaz Baig. Thirdly among good manufacturing companies such as Kicker, Adil flour mill, butterfly LED. Fourthly it will be distributed among event management companies such as LOTUS, Salman Ghauri events, JNS and Zafar Catering.
 
Fifthly, the banking industry such as Bank Al Habib main market, Faysal bank mall road and Standard Chartered Y-block. Moreover we selected the clothes manufacturing companies such as Noor’s Haute Coture, Rici Melon, Libas-e-khas and Laurencepur Suits. Lastly, we conducted our research among the showroom owners on Jail road such as Bari motors and City Car Center.
 
The targeted respondents was to be an average of 25 years and over because mainly people above this age know a lot more about the job compared to the young ones who have just recently joined the particular job. Executives or top management were requested to fill the questionnaire of each category at least, which enhanced the reliability of the survey. The employees were assumed literate, if not then assistance was provided to help them fill the questionnaire.
 
3.6 Regression Model
=++++ + ++ + ++
 
=++-+ - – + + + +
 
Is customer relationship performance in time; RIP is relational information process; CRMT is customer relationship management technology use; SPI is share of purchase intention; CRO is customer relationship orientation; CCSM is customer centric management; SR is social rapport; FT is firm trust; SQ is service quality; CFA is customer firm affection and ST is staff trust at time 2015. and ε represent the constant and error term, respectively.
 
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