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reference格式 HARVARD STYLE:HOW TO CITE REFERENCES USING

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RGU: LIBRARY
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
When to cite? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
reference格式 What should a reference citation look like within my text? . . . . . . 3
Reference citations for specific materials
A book by a single author / group of authors who have
not written chapters separately (a monograph) . . . . . . 4
An anthology, or a book where different authors have written different chapters . 4
A thesis (print) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
An article in a journal, magazine or newspaper (print) . . . . . . 5
Conference papers or proceedings . . . . . . . . . 6
An exhibition catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Where there is no author . . . . . . . . . . 7
Committee reports . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Legal materials
Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
European Union materials . . . . . . . . . 10
Bills and Command papers . . . . . . . . . 11
Scottish Law Commission / Law Commission materials . . . . . 12
In electronic formats only . . . . . . . . . . 12
Figures, tables and illustrations . . . . . . . . . 12
Original artworks . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Electronic resources
In fixed formats (e.g. on CD-ROM) . . . . . . . . 14
Online books . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
An electronic thesis . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Online journal articles . . . . . . . . . . 15
Webpages . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Films, videos, DVDs and broadcasts . . . . . . . . 16
Conversations, letters or emails (personal communications) . . . . . 18
Citing more than one source by the same author, and citing the
same source more than once . . . . . . . . . . 18
Secondary referencing . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Further information . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
RGU: LIBRARY
HOW TO CITE REFERENCES USING THE HARVARD STYLE
2 RGU: LIBRARY
Why cite references?
• To acknowledge use of other people’s work. Even if you cite someone else’s work only in order
to disagree with it, you have made use of their intellectual property and you must acknowledge
it.
• To help readers of your work follow how your argument was assembled and what your influences
are – to help them form their own opinions on your work.
If you use someone else’s work without acknowledgement you risk facing charges of
plagiarism, which could damage your progress through University. This Guide is designed to
help you apply good practice in acknowledging and citing your sources.
How do I cite?
There are different styles of reference prescribed by various organisations. Details about a particular
style will normally be set out in a style sheet or style manual: these cover things like how quotations#p#分页标题#e#
should be set out within your text as well as how your references and bibliography should look.
The Robert Gordon University has approved the use of either the Harvard style or the Vancouver
style for undergraduate use: check with your tutor or School which of these you should use in your
assignments. Whichever style your School requires should be applied consistently throughout your
academic work.
This Guide is based on the Harvard style as set out in British Standard recommendations for
references to published materials (BS 1629) – see the “Further Information” section for details.
A guide to the Vancouver style is also available from the Library.
Common to all st yles is th e us e of reference cit ati ons and
of a reference list and/or bibliogr aphy
Reference citations give information on other sources used in your text, at the point at which you use
them. In the Harvard system, the reference citation consists of a note, in brackets, of the author’s
name and the date of the work, which enables the reader to find the full details in the reference list
at the end. If you are quoting directly from your source the reference will usually indicate the precise
place to which you are referring (e.g. the page number).
The description of Glover’s education (McKay 1993) is based on several sources...
In the reference list, all the sources you have cited (except personal communications) are listed
in alphabetical order by author, and if there is more than one item by a particular author they are
listed in order of year of publication. A separate bibliography, which would include items you have
consulted but not cited in the text, is not required in the Harvard style.
MCKAY, A., 1993. Scottish samurai - Thomas Blake Glover. Edinburgh: Canongate.
RGU: LIBRARY 3
WHEN TO CITE?
Every time you quote directly from someone’s work:
• make clear it’s a quotation (put it in quotation marks)
• cite the reference in the body of your text
• include the work it comes from in the reference list/bibliography.
Every time you refer indirectly to someone’s work (e.g. summarise their argument, or paraphrase
what they say):
• make clear what you’re saying comes from another source (e.g. “I do not agree with Lapping’s
claim that...”)
• cite the reference in the body of your text
• include the work it comes from in the reference list/bibliography.
IMPORTANT NOTE: you should not rely too heavily on quotation and paraphrase of others’ work
in work of your own. Readers of your work will be looking for evidence of your own thoughts and
conclusions, and your own answers to the questions set – not just a patchwork of the ideas of others.
Where you draw on the work of others it should be as evidence for or against your own conclusions,#p#分页标题#e#
not as a substitute for showing that you have understood, and thought about, the resources you have
looked at.
Indiana
University have some useful guidance online on what is and what is not acceptable in quoting
and paraphrasing – see the “Further Information” section for details.
WHAT SHOULD A REFEREN CE CITATION LOO K LIKE WITHIN MY TEXT?
In the Harvard style, the author’s name and the year of publication are placed in brackets at the point
of reference. If the author’s name has occurred naturally in the text you can omit it from the brackets.
If you are referencing a direct quotation you should also include the number(s) of the page(s) it is
taken from in the brackets.
Gorbachev (1988 p. 84) describes his concept of economic reform as “of an all-embracing,
comprehensive character” and goes on to explain...
...and the “sombre, disturbing” aspects of Picasso’s art (Golding 1981 p. 63) are further
emphasised...
The description of Glover’s education (McKay 1993) is based on several sources...
Even a brief discussion of informed consent (McHaffie 2000) points up a number of related
issues...
4 RGU: LIBRARY
WHAT SHOULD A REFEREN CE LIST CON TAIN?
Referring to a book by a single author, or by a group of authors who have not written chapters
separately (a monograph)
• authors/editors – all of them. In the Harvard style the name is laid out as surname followed by
initial(s).
o For organisations, it is usually best to put the name in full (e.g. Department of Health, not
DoH).
o The Harvard (British Standard) style as set out in BS 1629 requires the authors’ names
to be in capitals.
• year of publication
• full title, in italics
• edition of the work – only if there has been more than one edition. If there has, you must say
which one, as the page numbers and content may change between editions.
• volume number – if the book is in more than one volume
• place of publication (as given on title page – if there are several, use only the one relevant to the
country in which this edition was published)
• publisher (NOT printer) – if the publisher’s name is abbreviated on the title page it can be
abbreviated in your reference (as in “HMSO”) but otherwise the name should be given in full.
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SOCIAL SERVICES INSPECTORATE, 1991. Purchase of services:
practice guidance and practice material for Social Services Departments and other agencies.
London: HMSO.
GORBACHEV, M., 1987. Perestroika. expanded ed. London: Fontana/Collins.
MCKAY, A., 1993. Scottish samurai - Thomas Blake Glover. Edinburgh: Canongate.#p#分页标题#e#
Referring to a section in an anthology, or a book where different authors have written different
chapters
If you have used the whole book as background reading, you should refer to it as a whole:
• editor(s) of the volume, followed by “ed.” or “eds.”
• year of publication
• full title, in italics
• edition, if there has been more than one
• volume number, if there is more than one volume
• place of publication
• publisher.
STANGOS, N., ed. 1981. Concepts of modern art. revised ed. London: Thames and Hudson.
If you have cited a part of the book in your text, or if you have used only one part as background
reading, you should refer to the part you have used. If you have cited more than one part in your text
you should list them separately in the reference list:
• author(s) of the part or chapter (surname followed by initial(s))
• year of publication
• title of the part or chapter
• “In:”, then details of the book. The book details are laid out as for a book citation except that the
author name(s) will be given as initial(s) followed by surname. Note that this is different from
the way authors’ names appear when they are at the beginning of the reference citation.
• first and last pages of the chapter or part, preceded by “pp.”.
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GOLDING, J., 1981. Cubism. In: N. STANGOS, ed. Concepts of modern art. revised ed. London:
Thames and Hudson. pp. 50–78
O’DONOVAN, K., 1994. Management issues. In: T. HANSON and J. DAY, eds. CD-ROM in
libraries: management issues. London: Bowker Saur. pp. 23–37
SMITH, R. 1981. Conceptual Art. In: N. STANGOS, ed. Concepts of modern art. revised ed.
London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 256–270
Referring to a thesis
There will be no publisher for a thesis, so you should indicate instead the degree for which it was
submitted and the awarding institution. The date will be the year in which the final version was
approved.
RENCKEN, D.W., 1991. A quantitative model for adaptive task allocation in human-computer
interfaces. Unpublished D. Phil thesis, University of Oxford.
A thesis which is available electronically is considered to be published – see the section below on
electronic resources for details of how to cite it.
Referring to an article in a periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper etc.)
• author(s) of the article (surname followed by initial(s)). If there are more than three authors, list
only the first one, followed by “et al.”
• year of publication
• article title
• periodical title, in italics. Give the full title for the sake of clarity, rather than using abbreviations.
• volume number, and part number in brackets#p#分页标题#e#
• first and last pages of the article, preceded by “pp.”.
HARRIS, S. and HYLAND, T., 1995. Basic skills and learning support in further education. Journal
of Further and Higher Education, 19 (1), pp. 42–48
For newspapers and magazine-type periodicals with no volume number, give the date of the issue:
TOYNBEE, P., 1995. Our unhealthy obsession with medical drama. Radio Times, 12 October, p.
21
6 RGU: LIBRARY
Referring to conference papers or proceedings
If you are citing an individual paper from a volume of conference proceedings you should cite it as
you would for a chapter in a book:
• author(s) of the paper, laid out as surname followed by initial(s)
• year of publication (note that this may not be the same as the year in which the conference was
held)
• title of the paper
• “In:”
• editor(s) of the volume, followed by “ed(s)”, laid out as initial(s) followed by surname
• full title of the volume, in italics
• “Proceedings of ”, and details of the conference (what number it was, if part of a series; the body
whose conference it was) in italics
• date the conference was held
• place of publication
• publisher
• first and last pages of the paper, preceded by “pp.”.
DOUKAKIS, I., PROCTOR, T. and PROCTOR, S. 2003. Creativity and advertising. In: R.
BENNETT, ed. New challenges for corporate and marketing communications. Proceedings of the
Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications. 7–8 April 2003.
London: London Metropolitan University. pp. 54–63
If you are citing the conference proceedings as a whole you should cite:
• editor(s) of the volume, followed by “ed(s)”
• year of publication
• full title, in italics
• “Proceedings of ”, and details of the conference (what number it was, if part of a series; the body
whose conference it was) in italics
• date the conference was held
• place of publication
• publisher.
BENNETT, R., ed. 2003. New challenges for corporate and marketing communications.
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications.
7–8 April 2003. London: London Metropolitan University.
Referring to exhibition catalogues
• artist or author – where the exhibition is of a single living artist’s work this will usually be the
artist. Where there are a number of living artists involved it will usually be the gallery or sponsor.
If the catalogue explicitly states it was written by someone other than the artist (e.g. where the
exhibition is a retrospective, or is historical) use the name of the person who wrote or edited it.
• publication date – the date the catalogue was published (this may be different from the date of#p#分页标题#e#
the exhibition itself)
• title of the catalogue, including any details of where the exhibition took place
• exhibition dates, in the format e.g. “13 - 18 September 1989”
• place of publication of the catalogue (not the location of the exhibition)
• publisher.
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MCFADYEAN, J. 1989. Exhibition of paintings and sculptures. Catalogue of an exhibition at
Forum. 13 - 18 September 1989. London: The Scottish Gallery.
TATE GALLERY. 1987. Art from Europe. Catalogue of an exhibition at the Tate Gallery. 15 April
- 21 June 1987. London: Tate Gallery.
Where there is no author
For an unsigned article in a journal or newspaper (such as an editorial), the title of the periodical
should be given in place of the author:
European Journal of Cancer Care. 1999. Editorial. European Journal of Cancer Care, 8 (3),
p. 127
Other anonymous authors (for example of a poem or a cartoon) can be listed as “ANON.”
Committees
Often a government committee report will be known informally by the name of the chairman/woman
of the committee (e.g. “the Dearing Report”). When citing it you should give the full name of the
committee as the author, but you may add “Chairman:” and the chairman/woman’s name in brackets
after the title if this will help readers of your work to identify the report.
NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY INTO HIGHER EDUCATION, 1997. Higher education in
the learning society. (Chairman: Sir Ron Dearing). London: The Stationery Office.
Referring to patents
• applicant / assignee (NOTE: the Harvard style does not give the inventor(s) if they are different to
the assignee. If the patent is assigned to the inventor’s company or university only the company
or university is cited.)
• year the patent was approved (applied for, if pending)
• title
• country / region (e.g. “European patent” for EP)
• patent number, without region abbreviation but with full date.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 2004. SQUID detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields. European
patent 1474707 2004-11-10.
REFERRING TO LE GAL MA TERIAL S
BS 1629 does not give full guidance on these but the following notes adapt accepted practice in
other styles to the Harvard approach.
NOTE: in most instances we recommend that you do not use abbreviations in your citations (e.g. for
journal titles) as there is no single standard set of abbreviations and readers can be misled. In legal
materials such as case reports and legislation, however, there are long-established conventions as
to how some titles should be abbreviated, and these abbreviations may be used. There is a list of the
most commonly-used legal abbreviations on the Library webpages at http://www.rgu.ac.uk/library/
howto/page.cfm?pge=27148#p#分页标题#e#
8 RGU: LIBRARY
For legal materials such as cases which are available to you in print or electronic format, (for example,
for a case report which is available both in the Library and on LexisNexis) you should cite it as if for
the printed version. However if material is available to you online only you should cite the electronic
version.
Scottish and English cases
i. Cases reported in law reports
The reference citation within your text should contain the case name and year. It is usual to put the
case name in italics.
In the case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company (1893), however...
Where the whole case is cited the reference list should contain:
• the case name, in italics
• the year
• the case report series abbreviation
• number of the first page of the case (note: do not use "p.").
Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company. 1893. 1 Q.B. 256
Where part of the case (either a quote or a point of law) is cited the reference list should
contain:
• the case name, in italics
• the year
• the case report series abbreviation
• number of the first page of the case, followed by "at", followed by the number of the first page of
the part quoted (note: do not use "p.").
Lord Atkin stated in Donoghue v Stevenson (1932) that “you must take reasonable care to avoid
acts or omissions which you can reasonably foresee would be likely to injure your neighbour”.
Donoghue v Stevenson. 1932. S.C. (H.L.) 31 at 44
ii. Neutral citations
New cases in the higher courts are now assigned a “neutral citation”. It contains the year, code for
the court and the number of the case. Most of these cases will also be reported in a recognised law
report series. Where a citation to such a series exists it should be given. However, if a case is very
new and only a neutral citation is available it can be used. The neutral citation will begin U.K.H.L. for
the House of Lords, U.K.P.C. for the Privy Council, E.W.C.A. for the Court of Appeal or E.W.H.C. for
the High Court: for Scottish courts, H.C.J.T. for the High Court, H.C.J.A.C. for the Court of Criminal
Appeal, C.S.O.H for the Court of Session (Outer House) or C.S.I.H for the Court of Session (Inner
House).
The recent case of Pinto v Brixton Prison Governor (2004) has highlighted...
Pinto v Brixton Prison Governor. 2004. E.W.H.C. 2986
RGU: LIBRARY 9
iii. Cases ONLY available in newspapers
Where a case has ONLY been reported in a newspaper, and no citation to a law report series or a
neutral citation exists, it can be cited as follows:
• case name (not in italics)
• year
• title of newspaper, in italics
• date, in the format dd month
• page number(s), preceded by "p." or "pp.".#p#分页标题#e#
Webley v Department for Work and Pensions. 2005. The Independent. 13 January, p. 43
iv. Unreported cases
Occasionally details of a case not reported in any series of law reports, without a neutral citation (see
above) and not available in any newspaper, may be available as a transcript or summary on Westlaw
UK or LexisNexis Professional, or in a textbook. Such a case should be cited as follows (name, court,
date, unreported):
• case name, in italics
• court
• date of judgement, in the format dd month yyyy
• "(Unreported)".
Hawley v Luminar Leisure Plc. Court of Appeal Queen’s Bench Division. 10 January 2005.
(Unreported).
Legislation
Within your text, the reference citation should take the form of the name of the Act etc. and the year
it was enacted. The year is treated as part of the Act’s title, to distinguish it from acts with same title
enacted in other years, so there is no need to repeat it in brackets.
The provisions of the Copyright (Visually Impaired Persons) Act 2002 include...
i. UK Parliament
Acts or Statutes:
• short title, in italics, including year of publication
• "c." followed by chapter number (note: this is not a section number within the Act but the Act's
own chapter number within the session of its enactment)
• if you are quoting a section, “s.” followed by the section number.
Copyright (Visually Impaired Persons) Act 2002. c. 33, s.4.
Statutory Instruments:
• title and year, in italics
• "S.I." followed by its number within the year of its enactment, in the format yyyy/(nnn)n.
The Milk Marketing Board (Dissolution) Order 2002. S.I. 2002/128.
10 RGU: LIBRARY
ii. Scottish Parliament
Acts or Statutes:
• short title and year, in italics
• "a.s.p." followed by the Act's number.
Tenements (Scotland) Act 2004. a.s.p. 11.
Statutory Instruments:
• title and year, in italics
• "S.S.I." followed by its number within the year of its enactment, in the format yyyy/(nnn)n.
The Fireworks (Scotland) Regulations 2004. S.S.I. 2004/393.
European Union Materials
i. Cases
• "Case" followed by case number. (Note: after Nov 1989, cases are subdivided into C (Court of
Justice) and T (Court of First Instance) series.)
• case name, in italics
• year
• report series abbreviation
• number of the first page of the case.
Case 43/75. Defrenne v SABENA. 1976. E.C.R. 455.
Case C–97/98. Peter Jagerskiold v Torolf Gustafsson. 1999. E.C.R. I–7319.
ii. Legislation
In your text, these should be cited as “Council Directive Year/Legislation Number” or “Council
Regulation Year/Legislation Number”, as appropriate.#p#分页标题#e#
...however the information contained in Council Directive 2004/83 (2004) and Council Regulation
1612/68 (1968) suggests...
It is acceptable when citing EU directives, decisions and legislation in your reference list to give only
the following information, without giving a full Official Journal citation:
for Directives and Decisions (all in italics)
• institutional origin (e.g. "Council Directive")
• year / legislation number / institutional treaty
• "of" followed by the date it was passed
• "on" followed by the title.
for Regulations (all in italics)
• institutional origin (e.g. "Council Regulation")
• institutional treaty, in brackets
• year / legislation number
• "of" followed by the date it was passed
• "on" followed by the title.
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11
Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on Minimum Standards for the Qualification and
Status of Third Country Nationals or Stateless Persons as Refugees or as Persons who Otherwise
Need International Protection and the Content of the Protection Granted.
Council Regulation (EC) 1612/68 of 1968 on Freedom of Movement for Workers within the
Community.
If you wish to include the Official Journal information it may be added in brackets at the end of the
bibliography entry.
Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on Minimum Standards for the Qualification and
Status of Third Country Nationals or Stateless Persons as Refugees or as Persons who Otherwise
Need International Protection and the Content of the Protection Granted. (OJ L304 2004; 30
September, p. 12)
Council Regulation (EC) 1612/68 on Freedom of Movement for Workers within the Community.
(OJ L257 1968; 19 October, p. 2)
Other (official and unofficial) papers and reports
i. Bills (U.K. Parliament)
• short title, in italics
• "H.C. Bill" (if House of Commons) or "H.L. Bill" (if Lords)
• parliamentary session, in brackets
• serial number.
Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Bill. H.C. Bill (2004–05) 11.
ii. Bills (Scottish Parliament)
The leading authorities have yet to give examples, so we suggest the following, based on the format
for UK bills:
• short title, in italics
• "S.P. Bill"
• parliamentary session, in brackets
• serial number.
Fire (Scotland) Bill. S.P. Bill (2004–5) 24.
iii. Hansard (UK Parliamentary debates)
• "Hansard", in italics
• year
• "H.C." or "H.L." (depending on which House the debate took place in)
• "Vol." and volume number
• "col." and column number
• date of the debate, in brackets.#p#分页标题#e#
Hansard. 2004. H.C. Vol. 421, col. 1695. (27 May).
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12
iv. Command papers (UK Parliament)
• originating committee or Ministry, in capitals
• year
• title, in italics
• abbreviation and number of command paper.
HOME OFFICE, 2004. Legislation on identity cards : a consultation. Cm. 6178.
v. Scottish Law Commission / Law Commission (reports, discussion papers etc.)
• name of commission as author, in capitals
• year of publication
• title, with report number in brackets, all in italics
• place of publication
• publisher (NOT printer) – if the publisher’s name is abbreviated on the title page it can be
abbreviated in your reference (as in “HMSO”) but otherwise the name should be given in full.
SCOTTISH LAW COMMISSION, 2004. Report on insanity and diminished responsibility (Report
195). Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.
Legal material only available electronically
Treat this as for an electronic journal article:
• author(s) of the article
• year of publication
• article title
• periodical title, in italics
• medium, in square brackets
• volume and issue number
• "Available from:" and the web address – if the web address for the individual article is very long,
you may use the “front page” address for the journal or full-text database
• "Accessed" and the accessed date, in square brackets.
LEWIS, T., 2004. Democracy, Free Speech and TV: the case of the BBC and the ProLife Alliance.
Web Journal of Current Legal Issues. [online] 5. Available from:
http://webjcli.ncl.ac.uk/2004/issue5/tlewis5.html [Accessed 17 January 2005]
Referri ng to figur es, tables and illustr ati ons
Where the figure or illustration is the author’s own work, or is not a substantial work in its own right
(e.g. if it is a family snapshot used in a biography) you should cite the author of the article or book
as author, as in this example:
...Donnan’s graph (2000 p. 371 Fig. 30.4) shows that the majority of patients...
If the figures or plates are numbered it is best to give the number as well as the page number: in the
example above, and in the one which follows, there are two illustrations on each page cited, so you
must let your readers know which one you mean.
In his school photograph (Hiney 1998 facing p. 134 Pl. 2), Chandler appears...
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13
In the reference list, the larger work from which the illustration comes will appear:
DONNAN, P.T., 2000. Quantitative analysis (descriptive). In: D. CORMACK, The research process
in nursing. 4th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science. pp. 365–382
HINEY, T., 1998. Raymond Chandler: a biography. London: Vintage.
However if the illustration is not by the author of the work in which it appears, and if it is a work in its#p#分页标题#e#
own right (e.g. a painting), you may wish to cite it in its own right (for instance, if it is an example of
the work of a painter you are writing about). In this case you should say in what type of medium the
original is (e.g. Engraving, Photograph, Watercolour), and should give the place the original work
can be found (e.g. the gallery it is in, for a painting) as well as the details of the publication in which
you saw it reproduced:
...while in Renoir’s painting of the Charpentiers (Renoir 1878) the figures are grouped
informally...
RENOIR, A., 1878. Madame Charpentier and her Children. Oil on canvas. New York: Metropolitan
Museum of Art. In: M.R. BROWN, ed. 2002. Picturing children. Aldershot: Ashgate.
IMPORTANT NOTE: the copyright laws restrict permission to “quote” illustrations, tables and
diagrams in your work more tightly than they restrict permission to quote small parts of text. If you
wish to reproduce someone else’s illustrations(s) or table(s) in a work of your own (rather than just
discussing and citing it) you may have to write to the author or publisher for permission. Check with
your tutor/School about any material of this kind you want to reproduce.
REFERRING TO ORIGINAL ARTWORKS
If you are citing a work of art itself (rather than an illustration of it), you should cite:
• artist(s)
• date – this should be the year in which the work was first exhibited (or the year in which it is
thought to have been produced, if it was not exhibited in the artist’s lifetime). It is acceptable to
give an approximate date, in the format e.g. “c. 1470”.
• title
• format e.g “Oil on canvas” or “Multimedia installation”
• place – this should be the town/city of the gallery etc in which it can be seen
• institution – this should be the gallery, cathedral etc where the artwork can be seen.
SARGENT, J.S. 1907. Lady Agnew of Lochnaw. Oil on canvas. Edinburgh: National Gallery of
Scotland.
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14
REFERRING TO MAP S
A map which is contained in a larger work (e.g. a journal article) should be cited as for any other
illustration (see above). For a map which is published separately in its own right your should cite:
• cartographer (this may be a company or a corporate body such as the Ordnance Survey, the
British Geological Survey, etc)
• date of publication
• title
• scale, expressed as a ratio
• series, if it is part of a series
• place of publication
• publisher.
ORDNANCE SURVEY. 1990. Ballater, Glen Clova and surrounding area. 1: 50 000. Landranger.
Southampton: Ordnance Survey.
Referri ng to electr onic resourc es
Materials in electronic formats, even when posted free to the Internet, are still the intellectual property#p#分页标题#e#
of the person or organisation who produced them, and you must acknowledge them as you would
for printed materials.
Because online (Internet) resources can move or change rapidly, in a way that print resources cannot,
it is usual to give the date when you consulted them (the “accessed date”) as well as the other details.
For electronic resources in “fixed” formats such as CD-ROM or DVD this is not necessary.
Referring to electronic resources in “fixed” formats
• authors/editors
• year of publication – usually the release date of the disk etc.
• title – if you are using an article from within a larger resource, the article title should be cited as
for a print journal, followed by “In:” and the details of the larger resource (as for print materials,
above). Otherwise give the title of the CD-ROM (or other resource) as a whole.
• format – e.g. “CD-ROM”, in square brackets
• place of publication/production
• publisher
NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY INTO HIGHER EDUCATION, 1997. Higher education in
the learning society. (Chairman: Sir Ron Dearing). [CD-ROM]. London: The Stationery Office.
Referring to online books and journals
For online resources that are based on their print counterparts (online journals or books) it is fairly
straightforward to identify authors, dates etc. and the only difference is that you add the format, the
web address and “accessed date”.
For an online book by a single author/group of authors this will be:
• author(s)
• year of publication
• title in full
• medium e.g. “online” in square brackets
• edition of the work – only if there has been more than one edition
RGU: LIBRARY
15
• place of publication
• publisher
• “Available from:” and the web address
• “Accessed” and the accessed date in square brackets.
FRAZER, Sir J.G., 1922. The Golden Bough. [online] New York: Macmillan.
Available from: http://www.bartleby.com/196/168.html [Accessed 28 August 2003]
For a section or chapter in an edited work it will mirror the print format in the same way, with the
same additions.
For an electronic thesis the details are given as for a print thesis, except that the word “Unpublished”
is omitted and the medium, web address and accessed date are given in the same way as for an
electronic book.
SETTERSTEIN, L., 1999. Critical thinking and participation in health behaviors. [online] PhD
thesis, University of Wisconsin. Available from:
http://www.library.wisc.edu/databases/connect/dissertations.html [Accessed 26 October 2004]
For an article in an electronic journal it will be:
• author(s) of the article#p#分页标题#e#
• year of publication
• article title
• periodical title, in italics
• medium, in square brackets
• volume and issue number
• “Available from:” and the web address – if the web address for the individual article is very long,
you may use the “front page” address for the journal or full-text database
• “Accessed” and the accessed date in square brackets.
Martin and Pearce (2003) discuss a project which looks at institutional portals...
...and some artists draw attention to the symbolic significance of trees (Gsteu 2003)...
GSTEU, M., 2003. The tree: a symbol of life. PSA Journal. [online] 69(1). Available from:
http://www.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed 28 August 2003]
MARTIN, R. and PEARCE, L. Just a distraction?: external content in institutional portals. Ariadne.
[online] Issue 36. Available from:
http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue36/justadist/ [Accessed 21 August 2003]
16 RGU: LIBRARY
Referring to webpages
• author(s)/editor(s) – usually the person who posted the content you are citing. If the content is
unsigned you can use the name of the website, or of the organisation it belongs to.
• year of publication – if the author has not specifically dated the item you are citing, you could use
the “last updated” date of the page.
• title of the webpage
• format e.g. “online”, in square brackets
• place of publication if this can be determined
• publisher – if the website is hosted by a company or organisation you can use them as the
publisher. Otherwise the publisher may be the author. ISPs such as Freeserve are not normally
cited as publisher, except for material on their own company webpages.
• “Available from:” and the web address
• “Accessed” and the accessed date in square brackets.
in your text
Rick Hall (2003) summarises the controversy over the Atkins diet...
...recent lists of professional posts in the offshore industries (Institute of Petroleum 2003)
include...
in the reference list
HALL, R., 2003. Atkins diet controversy: low-carb diet gets thumbs down from medical group.
[online] New York: About Nutrition. Available from:
http://nutrition.about.com/library/weekly/aa030203a.htm [Accessed 29 August 2003]
INSTITUTE OF PETROLEUM, 2003. Industry information: working offshore. [online] London:
Institute of Petroleum. Available from:
http://www.petroleum.co.uk/index.cfm?PageID=40 [Accessed 29 August 2003]
Referri ng to fi lms, vi deos, DVDs and broadcasts
In most cases, these will be collaborative efforts and they should be listed in the reference list under
their title (but see below for exceptions):
• title
• date – for films and videos this should be the year of release. For broadcasts it should be the#p#分页标题#e#
year of first broadcast. If you are referring to a long-running series as a whole, there may not be
a date – but see below for individual episodes
• medium (e.g. Film, Video) in square brackets
• for films you can add “Directed by” and the director’s name if you wish to
• place of publication (normally the main offices of the studio or production company)
• publisher (normally the film, broadcasting, or production company).
...and Welles went on to direct Shakespeare (Macbeth 1948), though some critics complained...
...Kurosawa’s interpretation of the Macbeth story (Throne of Blood 1957) transposes it to mediaeval
Japan...
...while in the Archers (The Archers) the “Lady Macbeth” character who seeks to realise her
ambitions through her husband is Susan Carter...
RGU: LIBRARY
17
The Archers. [Radio series]. London: BBC Radio 4.
Macbeth. 1948. [Film]. Directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures.
Throne of Blood. 1957. [Film]. Directed by Akira Kurosawa. Japan: Toho. [Video].
London: Argos Films/British Film Institute.
If a video, DVD or broadcast is clearly the intellectual work of a single person (e.g. an “opinion piece”
written, produced and presented by one broadcaster) they should be cited as the author. You can
also use this type of format for feature films if you wish to highlight the fact that they are the work of
a particular director.
KUROSAWA, A., director. Throne of Blood. 1957. [Film]. Japan: Toho. [Video]. London: Argos
Films/British Film Institute.
WILCOX, D. 2000. The battle for Docklands. [Video]. London: Desmond Wilcox Productions for
Docklands Development Corporation.
For individual episodes of a series you should give the number (if there is one) and the title (if there
is one) of the episode, and the date on which it was broadcast.
...when Susan’s husband resigns from his job (The Archers 2003) she is furious...
...in the very first episode of the series (Yes, Minister 1986), Jim Hacker is introduced to the
realities of politics...
The Archers. 2003. [Radio series]. London: BBC Radio 4. 20 August
Yes, Minister. 1986. Episode 1, The Ministerial Broadcast. [TV]. London: BBC2. 16 January
For an individual contribution within a broadcast (such as an interview within a larger programme)
you should reference the individual and then the broadcast in which their contribution appears.
...the Chancellor, however, stated in an interview (Brown 2002) that...
BROWN, G., 2002. Interview. In: Newsnight. [TV]. London: BBC2. 28 March
RGU: LIBRARY
18
Referri ng to convers ati ons, lett ers or emails
(pers onal communic ati ons)
British Standard 1629 does not give specific guidance on personal communications. The following
notes adapt accepted practice in other styles to the Harvard approach.#p#分页标题#e#
If you refer in your text to a letter or email you have received from someone, or a conversation you
have had with them, you should cite it as a personal communication in the text of your work only.
The reference citation should contain:
• the person’s name (if that does not appear in your text) laid out as surname followed by
initial(s)
• the words “personal communication” (for letters or emails you can add “by letter” or “by email” if
you wish)
• the date the communication took place (for emails or letters this will be the date on which it was
sent to you).
...Beryl Morris (personal communication. 12 August 2004) suggests training is often the first
activity to be cut in times of financial stringency...
...while “training is often the first thing to suffer when funds are tight” (MORRIS, B., personal
communication. 12 August 2004)...
...while the HR Director of XCorp claims the company has never needed a Staff Development
policy (BLOGGS, J., personal communication by email. 13 August 2004)...
Emails posted to a bulletin board, weblog or similar rather than sent to you personally should be cited
as for other webpages (see the section on “Referring to electronic resources” for details).
Letters which have been published in a newspaper or periodical should be cited as for newpaper or
periodical articles. Letters which have been published in book form as part of a collection (for example,
the Collected Letters of a politician) should be cited as for a chapter within an edited book. Letters
which have been quoted in a book by another person (for example, in a biography) should be cited as
secondary references. See the relevant sections of this Guide for details of how to cite these.
Referri ng to more th an one sourc e by th e same auth or,
and referri ng more th an once to th e same sourc e
Referring to more than one source by the same author
In the Harvard style, the date is used to distinguish between different works by the same author. If
more than one work dates to the same year, letters of the alphabet are added.
While some countries have moved towards national strategies on cholesterol (Oliver 1993a),
problems with cholesterol-lowering approaches remain (Oliver 1993b). It has also been suggested
that some sectors of the population, such as young women, have been neglected in the study of
heart disease (Oliver 1978)...
In the reference list these will appear as:
OLIVER, M.F., 1978. Coronary heart disease in young women. Edinburgh: Churchill
Livingstone.
OLIVER, M.F., 1993a. National cholesterol policies. European Heart Journal, 14(5), pp. 581–3
OLIVER, M.F., 1993b. Lowering cholesterol for prevention of coronary heart disease – problems
and perspectives. Cardiovascular Drugs & Therapeutics, 7(5), pp. 785–8#p#分页标题#e#
RGU: LIBRARY
19
Referring to the same source more than once
Repeated citations of the same work do not make any difference to the way the citation appears in
the text. A second citation of the Oliver book in the example above, for instance, would still appear in
the text as (Oliver 1978), and if it referred to a direct quotation it would also include the relevant page
number. The work should appear once only in the reference list.
Referri ng to a sourc e which is referr ed to in anoth er sourc e
(secondary referenci ng)
It is best to quote from the original source, but sometimes you may have to quote a source as it is
quoted in another (secondary) work. Where this happens you must make clear in your text both the
source you are quoting and the secondary source you are quoting from. However it is the secondary
source (the one you have actually looked at) that appears in the reference list.
Clark discusses Lewin’s work on “action research” in some detail (Clark 2000)...
Chandler, in a letter quoted by Hiney, claimed that most people could do without literature “far
more easily than they could do without coffee or whisky” (Hiney 1998 p.186)...
In these examples, it is Lewin and Chandler respectively who are being quoted, but the references
are to the works we quote them from (Clark and Hiney). Similarly it is Clark and Hiney who appear
in the reference list.
CLARK, J.E., 2000. Action research. In: D. CORMACK, The research process in nursing. 4th ed.
Oxford: Blackwell Science. pp. 183–196
HINEY, T., 1998. Raymond Chandler: a biography. London: Vintage.
When reading about Loftus’s (1974) research in Eysenck (1998) you would cite as follows:
in your text – report both original and secondary source
Participants in Loftus’s (1974) study reported that they had ... (cited in Eysenck 1998).
in the reference list – only report the secondary source
EYSENCK, M. 1998. Psychology: an integrated approach. Singapore: Longman Press.
Similarly, if you read about a study by Loftus (1960) in Roediger and McDermott (1995) you would
cite as follows:
in your text
A study by Loftus (1960 cited in Roediger & McDermott, 1995) showed that …
in the reference list
ROEDIGER, H.L. and McDERMOTT, K. B. 1994. Creating false memories, remembering words
not presented in lists. Journal of experimental psychology, 21, 803–804.
RGU: LIBRARY
Furth er informati on
on plagiarism and related issues
The Robert Gordon University’s Information for students on Academic Misconduct at
http://www.rgu.ac.uk/academicaffairs/committees/page.cfm?pge=7088
includes the University’s statement on plagiarism.
The Writing Tutorial Service at Indiana University has useful information on Plagiarism: What It is#p#分页标题#e#
and How to Recognize and Avoid It at
http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/plagiarism.shtml
on the Harvard style
British Standard recommendations for references to published materials. 1989. London: British
Standards Institution BS 1629:1989.
on other styles
A Guide to the Vancouver style is also available from the Library, and on the Library Webpages at
http://www.rgu.ac.uk/library/howto/page.cfm?pge=25531
For staff and researchers preparing papers for external publication, links to guides to other styles are
also available from the Library Webpages at
http://www.rgu.ac.uk/library/howto/page.cfm?pge=27218
However, many journals have “in-house” styles which may differ from the major styles. It is usually
best to check the homepage of any journal to which you are thinking of submitting an article, as most
give details of their prescribed style under “Information for authors” or similar.
PUTTING TOGETHER YO UR REFEREN CES –
OB VIOUS BUT OFTEN -FORGOTTEN PO INTS
• Keep notes as you go along – keep a list of the works you look at as you look at them, on index
cards or a database or even on a piece of paper.
• If you write down a potentially useful quotation, write down the reference along with it.
• If you photocopy something to read later, make sure that all the information you will need for your
reference is on the photocopy – if it isn’t, write it on now.
• Never rely on memory for referencing. Check everything.
• Never leave referencing until the last minute. If the work you’re referring to is not your own
personal copy you may not get access to it again to check details.
• Make sure every source you cite is in the reference list.
• Make sure your reference list is in the right order (i.e. alphabetical by author, then by year of
publication if you cite more than one source by the same author).
reference格式• Make sure you are using your style consistently. If you have imported references from elsewhere
they may not conform to the required style – always check.
• Allow plenty of time for final checking.
 

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