HandbookProposal Abstract introduction Literature Review outline swot分析法 pest分析法 pestel analysis case study Methodology Reference 论文题目选题


时间:2017-09-27 14:38来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
The chapter shall looks at the background of the study, statement of the problem, research questions, objectives of the study, purpose of the study, hypothesis, assumptions of the study, delimitation of the study, limitations of the study, and the organisation of the study.
Auditing was firstly introduced in the year 1879, in the banking sector when banking institutions were required by the statute to have an audit system, which was not generally extended until 1900 (Millichamp and Taylor: 2012). It was defined by Mainoma, (2007) as an independent examination of the financial statements, and expression of an opinion on the financial statements of an organisation by the selected auditor, in line with their professional requirements and the required statutory regulations. This means that the appointed auditor is responsible to expressing an opinion on the financial statements of an organisation, the auditor here mean an individual or a firm doing audit of an organisation. The auditor should be approved and must have personal and operational independence in order to perform his duty effectively.
Since it was introduced, auditing is mainly divided in to two broad categories as internal and external auditing. Internal auditing as its name implies, operates within the organization and external auditing also operates externally. The Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy (CIPFA), as cited by Johnson (2006:47) defines internal audit as “an independent appraisal function within an organisation for the review of activities as a service to all levels of management. It is a control which measures, evaluates and reports upon the effectiveness of internal control, financial and otherwise, as a contribution to the efficient use of resources within an organisation.” From this definition then it means Internal audit’s objective is to assist organisational members in the effective discharge of their duties and also most organisations in the world either large or small undertake internal auditing as a vital measure of internal control systems in their operations.
Internal auditing is a legal requirement in all tiers of the government including local authorities. The reason behind this is that local authorities and all public sector organisations are funded by the public funds and therefore must be accountable for its use, hence auditing process of the public sector bodies’ place greater reliance on the effectiveness of internal auditing than what the private sectors does. Local government as a segment of the public sector is one of the three tiers of government in Zimbabwe. At local government level, all local authorities are entrusted with public resources and they are charged to have a duty of ensuring proper utilisation of those resources. In a bid to optimise proper utilisation of those resources, laws and regulations are enacted in order to control expenditure and the sources to financing these expenditures. To ensure adherence to laid down laws and regulations internal auditing system was established in the local authorities (Badara 2012).(责任编辑:BUG)

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