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变革管理:埃克森美孚案例研究 Change Management: ExxonMobil Case Study(3)

时间:2018-06-29 08:46来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Internal Forces
Internal forces for change arise from internal activities and decisions. If goal of rapid company growth is set by top managers, internal actions will have to be changed to meet that growth.
Steps For Effective Organizational Change
The four steps for organizational change process are as follows:
Assess the need for change
Initiate change
Implement change
Evaluate the change
Assessing the need for the change
The external and internal forces translate into a perceived need for change within the organization. Managers sense a need for change when there is a performance gap-a disparity between existing and desired performance levels. The performance gap may occur because current procedures are not up to standard or because a new idea or technology could improve current performance.
Managers in every company must be alert to problems and opportunities, because the perceived need for change is what sets the stage for subsequent action that creates a new product or technology. Big problems are easy to spot. Sensitive monitoring systems are needed to detect gradual changes that can fool managers into thinking their company is doing changes slowly, because managers may fail to trigger an organizational response.
Initiating change
After assessing the need of change the next crucial step is to initiate change which is true part of change management. This is where the ideas are developed.
Search is a learning process about current happenings inside or outside the organization that can be used to meet the perceived need for change. Search typically unfolds existing knowledge that can be applied or adopted within the organization. Hiring of experts, consultant is a very important aspect of such search.
Creativity is the development of novel solutions to the perceived problems. Creative individuals develop idea that can be adopted by the organization. Creativity can be designed into organizations. Companies or departments within companies can be organized to be creative and initiate changes.
Idea Champions And New-Venture Teams
If creative conditions are successful, new ideas will be generated that must be carried forward for acceptance and implementation. This is where idea champions come in. The formal definition of the idea champion is a person who sees the need for and champions productive change within the organization. Champions are passionately committed to a new product or idea despite rejection by others
Implementing Change
Effective Implementation of perceived change is the most vital part of Change Management. Creative culture, idea champions and new-venture teams are ways to facilitate the initiation of new ideas. One frustration for managers is that employees often seem to resist change for no apparent reason. To effectively manage the implementation process, managers should be aware of the reason for employee resistance and be prepared to use. Techniques for obtaining employee cooperation are:(责任编辑:cinq)

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