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变革管理:埃克森美孚案例研究 Change Management: ExxonMobil Case Study(4)

时间:2018-06-29 08:46来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
 
Resistance To Change
Idea champion often discover that other employees are unenthusiastic about their new idea. Members of a new-venture group may be surprised when managers in the regular organization do not support or approve their innovations. Several reasons for employee resistance are:
 
Self-Interest.
Lack Of Understanding And Trust.
Uncertainty.
Different Assessment And Goals.
The reasons for resistance are legitimate in the eyes of employees affected by the changes. The best procedure for managers is not to ignore resistance but to diagnose the reasons and design strategies to gain acceptance by users.
 
The strategies for overcoming resistance to change typically involve two approaches: the analysis of resistance through the force field technique and the use of selective implementation tactics to overcome resistance.
 
Force Field Theory of Change Developed by Kurt Lewin:
It's the process of determining which forces drive and which resist a proposed change. To implement a change, management should analyze the change forces. By selectively removing forces that restrain change, the driving forces will be strong enough to enable implementation. As restraining forces are reduced or removed, behavior will shift to incorporate the desired changes.
 
The theory underlying organizational development proposes three distinct steps for achieving behavioral and attitudinal change:
 
unfreezing,
changing, and
refreezing.
In the first step, unfreezing, the diagnostic stage of organizational development in which participants are made aware of problems in order to increase their willingness to change their behavior. Diagnosis is done by change agent. This diagnosis helps determine the extent of organizational problems and help unfreeze managers.
 
The second step, changing, a step in the intervention stage of organizational development in which individuals experiment with new workplace behavior. There the change agent implements a specific plan for training managers and employees.
 
Refreezing, a step in the reinforcement stage of organizational development in which individuals acquire a desired new skill or attitude and are rewarded for it by the organization. [5]
 
Selective Implementation Tactics
The other approach to managing implementation is to adopt specific tactics to overcome employee resistance. The following five tactics have proven successful:
 
Communication and Education. Communication and education are used when solid information about the change is needed by users and others who may resist implementation. Education is especially important when the change involves new technical knowledge or users are unfamiliar with the idea.(责任编辑:cinq)


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