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变革管理:埃克森美孚案例研究 Change Management: ExxonMobil Case Study(5)

时间:2018-06-29 08:46来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Participation. Participation involves users and potential resisters in designing the change. This approach is time consuming, but it pays off because users understand and become committed to the change.
Negotiation. Negotiation is more formal means of achieving cooperation. Negotiation uses formal bargaining to win acceptance and approval of a desired change.
Coercion. Coercion means that managers use formal power to force employees to change. Resisters are told to accept the change or lose rewards or even their jobs. Coercion is necessary in crisis situation when a rapid response is urgent.
Top Management Support. The visible support of top management also helps overcome resistance to change. Top management support symbolizes to all employees that the change is important for the organization.
Evaluating The Change
The last step in the change process is to evaluate how successful the change effort has been in improving organizational performance. Using measures such as changes in market share, profits, or the ability of manages to meet their goals, managers compare how well an organization is performing after the change with how well it was performing before. Managers also can use benchmarking, comparing their performance on specific dimensions with the performance of high-performing organizations to decide how successful the change effort has been.
Types Of Planned Change
Now that we have explored how the initiation and implementation of change can be carried out, let us look at the different types of change that take place in organizations.
The types of organization changes are strategy, technology, products, structure, and culture/ people. Organizations may innovate in one or more areas, depending on internal and external forces or change. In the rapidly changing toy industry, a manufacturer has to introduce new products frequently. In a mature, competitive industry, production technology changes are adopted to improve efficiency.
In the diagram, the arrows connecting the types of change show that a change in one part may affect other parts of the organization: a new product may require changes in technology, and a new technology may require new people skills or a new structure.
Technology Changes
A technology change is related to the organization's production process-how the organization does its work. Technology changes are designed to make the production of a product or service more efficient.
How can managers encourage technology change?
The general rule is that technology change is bottom up. The bottom-up approach means that ideas initiated at lower organization levels and channeled upward for approval. Lower level technical experts act as idea champions-they invent and champion technological changes. Employees at lower levels understand the technology and have the expertise needed to propose changes.(责任编辑:cinq)

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