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变革管理:埃克森美孚案例研究 Change Management: ExxonMobil Case Study(6)

时间:2018-06-29 08:46来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Managers can facilitate the bottom-up approach by designing creative departments. A loose, flexible, decentralized structure provides employees with the freedom and opportunity to initiate continuous improvements. A rigid, centralized, standardized structure stifles technology innovation. Anything managers do to involve the grass roots of the organization-the people who are experts in their parts of the production process-will increase technology change.
New-Product Changes
A product change is a change in the organization's product or service output. New-product innovations have major implications for an organization, because they often are an outcome of a new strategy and may define a new market.
The introduction of a new product is difficult, because it not only involves a new technology but also must meet customers' needs. Companies that develop new products usually have the following characteristics:
People in marketing have a good understanding of customer needs
Technical specialists are aware of recent technological developments and make effective use of new technology
Members from key departments-research, manufacturing, marketing-cooperate in the development of new product.
These findings mean that the ideas for new products typically originate at the lower levels of the organization just as they do for technology changes.
One approach to new product innovation is called the horizontal linkage model. In this model people from research, manufacturing and marketing departments meet frequently in teams and task forces to share ideas and solve problems. Research people inform marketing of new technical developments to learn whether they will be good to customers. Marketing people pass customer complaints to research to use in the design of new products. Manufacturing informs other departments whether a product idea can be manufactured within costs limits.
This teamwork required for the horizontal linkage model is a major component of using rapid innovation to beat the competition with speed.
Structural Changes
A structural change is a change in the way in which the organization is designed and managed. Structural changes involve the hierarchy of authority, goals, structural characteristics, administrative procedures, and management systems. Almost any change in how the organization is managed falls under the category of structural change.
Successful structural change is accomplished through a top-down approach, which is distinct from technology change (bottom up) and new products (horizontal). Structural change is top down because the expertise for administrative improvements originates at the middle and upper levels of the organization. The champions for structural change are middle and top managers. Lower-level technical specialists have little interest or expertise in administrative procedures. If organization structure causes negative consequences for lower-level employees, complaints and dissatisfaction alert managers to a problem. Employee dissatisfaction is an internal force for change. The need for change is perceived by higher managers, who then take the initiative to propose and implement it.(责任编辑:cinq)

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