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变革管理:埃克森美孚案例研究 Change Management: ExxonMobil Case Study(7)

时间:2018-06-29 08:46来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
 
The top-down process does not mean that coercion is the best implementation tactic. Implementation tactics include education, participation, and negotiation with employees.
 
Top-down change means that initiation of the idea occurs at upper levels and is implemented downward. It does not mean that lower-level employees are not educated about the change or allowed to participate in it.
 
Culture/People Changes
A culture/people change refers to a change in employees' values, norms, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior. Changes in culture and people pertain to how employees think; these are changes are in mindset rather than technology, structure, or products. People change pertains to just a few employees, such as when a handful of middle managers is sent to a training course to improve their leadership skills. Training is the most frequently used tool for changing the organization's mindset. A company may offer training programs to large blocks of employees on subjects such as teamwork, listening skills, quality circles, and participative management.
 
Another major approach to changing people and culture is organizational development.
 
Organizational Development
Organizational development (OD) is the application of behavioral science knowledge to improve an organization's health and effectiveness through its ability to cope with environmental changes, improve internal relationships, and increase problem-solving capabilities. Organizational development improves working relationships among employees.
 
The following are three types of current problems that OD can help managers address.
 
Mergers/Acquisitions. Culture differences should be evaluated during the acquisition process, and OD experts can be used to smooth the integration of two firms.
 
Organizational Decline/Revitalization. OD techniques can contribute greatly to cultural revitalization by managing conflicts, fostering commitment, and facilitating communication.
 
Conflict Management. Conflict can occur at any time and place within a healthy organization. Organizational development efforts can help solve these kinds of conflicts.
 
OD Activities
A number of OD activities have emerged in recent years. Some of the most popular and effective are as follows.
 
Team-Building Activities. Team building enhances the cohesiveness and success of organizational groups and teams.
 
Survey-Feedback Activities. Survey feedback begins with a questionnaire distributed to employees. Employees are engaged in problem solving based on the data received from questionnaire.
 
Intergroup Activities. These activities include retreats and workshops to improve the effectiveness of groups or departments that must work together.(责任编辑:cinq)


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