英国留学生论文case study写作参考:太阳能的案例研究

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英国留学生论文case study写作参考
Solar Energy Case Study: Ophone
Solar energy has been growing in popularity due to its eco-friendly reasons and its ability of tapping into a reusable energy source. Ophone has successfully combined solar power into the mobiles phones to create a mobile unit that requires minimal charging of the battery. By leaving the phone under the sun or even within indoor office conditions, the phone has the ability to recharge its batteries with the solar panels on the surface of the unit. Due to such a technology, the standby time is estimated to last for a month while frequent usage of the phone's applications will make it last for a week. This virtue itself has a very strong competitive advantage in the mobile phone market. Users like businessmen who constantly have outstation works may find Ophone useful and extremely convenient.
Ophone intends to penetrate into a market where the citizens have busy lifestyle and have high purchasing power. From the research carried out, Singapore is considered as the ideal target market.
The economy of Singapore is a highly developed and successful capitalist mixed economy. While government intervention is kept at a minimum, government entities such as the sovereign wealth fund control corporation responsible for 60% of gross domestic product (GDP). It has open business environment, relatively corruption-free and transparent, stable prices, and one of the highest per capita GDP in the world (Yelen, 2008). Thus, Singapore can be considered as a country with a business-friendly environment.
2.1 Population
According to the latest report from the Singapore Department of Statistic (DOS), Singapore's total population as at end-June 2007 was 4,588,600 (Table 1). The resident populations in Singapore, consist of Singapore citizens and permanent residents, numbered 3,583,100 and formed 78 per cent of the total population (Singapore, Department of Statistics, 2008).
The Singapore total population in 2007 grew by 4.3 per cent over the previous year. The resident populations have a 1.6 percent growth rate in 2007, while the non-resident population grew by 14.9 per cent in 2007 (Table 2) (Singapore, Department of Statistics, 2008).#p#分页标题#e#
Singapore as a market size can be considered small. However, Singapore government is encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore, in order to increase the number of its population. Singapore attracts a lot of immigrant such as worker, student and tourist. Those immigrants can considered as another potential market for Ophone.
2.2 Income
Singapore has a highly developed market-based economy, which historically revolves around extended entreport trade. Manufacturing constituted 26 percent of Singapore's GDP. Electronic, petroleum refining, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences is the major industry in Singapore. Supported by a favorable international economic environment and accommodative domestic policies, in 2007 Singapore's GDP recorded 35,163 US$ (Statistics Singapore, 2008)
In 2007, Singapore Department of Statistic reported the average monthly household income rose to $6,280 in 2007, up from $5,730 in 2006. While among employed household, the average monthly household income from work grew by 9.1 per cent in 2007 to reach $6,830.
In term of per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), Singapore was ranked second among Brunei Darussalam, Macao, Hong Kong and Taiwan which is 99,706 Hong Kong Dollar (Singapore, Department of Statistics, 2007).
Singapore's high pace economic growth brings benefit in several factors such as, higher household income, higher purchasing power and lower unemployment rate. Therefore, Ophone can be sold in higher price and broader target market can be captured.
2.3 Consumption patterns
According to Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) survey, in January 2008 total mobile phone subscribers were recorded 5,765,100 (Table 3) which increase 686,300 subscribers since last year 2007 (IDA Singapore, 2008). Mobile phone subscriber penetration has increase over year exceeding 100% since 2006 (Graph 1). In other words, one Singaporean might own more than one mobile phone (IDA Singapore, 2008
Besides that, Singapore's household expenditure survey (HES) found that household expenditure in communication have a significant growth from year to year (Singapore, Household Expenditure Survey, 2003).
The study found that Singapore household expenditure in communication sector particularly mobile phone is gradually increasing. In addition, it is almost impossible to find any individual which can survive without mobile phone. In this case, Ophone is predicted to have a good market opportunity in Singapore, due to the high demand of mobile phone.
2.4 Infrastructure
Singapore has a very high quality physical infrastructure combined with a highly efficient services framework. One example of Singapore highly efficient infrastructure is Changi International Airport (Abeysinghe, 2007). As Singapore's geography condition is considered as small in size, however Singapore's transportation also has been managed very carefully in order to avoid traffic clog the road network.#p#分页标题#e#
Singapore also has an excellent info comm. Infrastructure comprises the ultra high speed wireless broadband network. Providing the ultra high speeds of symmetric 1 Gbps and provisioning of 100 Mbps (IDA Singapore, 2008).
Singapore's infrastructure is one of the most efficient infrastructures in the world. Singapore has an excellent distribution network which will help in distributing Ophone. Beside that, Singapore has a good info communication Infrastructure which will be an advantage in marketing purpose.
3.0 Culture 文化
Culture deals with a group's design for living, and it is pertinent to provide a good marketing opportunities. Singapore is a small and modern country with amalgam population of Chinese, Malay, Indian, and other immigrants. And the culture of Singapore expresses the diversity of the population and residents.
3.1 Cultural Background
Historical Event
In the 1960s and the early years of Singapore's independence, Singapore was plagued with many problems. The problems of the sixties include small domestic market, lack of natural resources, lack of skills and technology, lack of capital, and sabotage by the anti-national left (Low, 2007).
Due to these problems, the Government has created the Singaporeans' crisis mentality by expressing a permanent sense of crisis. This preoccupation with survival has given rise to Singaporean mentality which is "We are tough people" and "We have to do it on our own" (Low, 2007). This mentality has built a strong culture of being resilience. Singapore consisted of Asian immigrants who left their shores to seek a better life (Caroline et al, 2006). They came, faced hardship and remained and it was this resilience or hardiness which gives the nation backbone and drives Singaporeans to achieve adversity quotient (Low, 2007).
Singaporeans have looked to Japan as a model and the Japanese are seen as hardy people. Their harsh environment, which is without many resources, has galvanized the Japanese and Singaporeans wish to emulate them. All land must be fully and optimally utilized. High-rise flats were built. Cleanliness was and is being maintained. And lastly, the education system has had to be refined to bring about economic survival and competitiveness (National University of Singapore, 2006). Those continuous efforts and resilience are thus fostered as one of Singaporean core values. And during the past 30 years, the rapid development of Singapore's economy has been unmatched by any other developing country. In the highly developed economy, the standard living of the citizens is getting higher, which is linked to the higher levels disposable income, leisure time and education, including a limitless quest for new commodities. Increasingly, these goods and services are consumed more for their aesthetic and sign value, defined as brand image associations like status, luxury, power, or style (Low, 2007). Therefore, Ophone do have a good market in Singapore, especially if they are designed in a luxury form.#p#分页标题#e#
Based on the breakdown, the Chinese races form the majority of the total population. So the Chinese culture can be felt very strongly in Singapore. The majority of Chinese ethnic have added a positive value to Singapore, which the Chinese are well known with their business-minded (Caroline, et al, 2006). Due to the large number of business activities in Singapore, Ophone which offers convenience for bossiness purposes, it is estimated to have a great demand.
Aware of the country's extremely limited natural resources and small territory, Singapore government introduced birth control policies in the late 1960s. As the result, in the late 1990s, the population was ageing with fewer people entering the labor market and a shortage of skilled workers. Singapore has one of the fastest ageing populations in the world with a low fertility rate, which is 1.6% (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005). To prevent the declining number of population, the government is encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore.
With the proportion of the age population, most of the generations X and Y in Singapore have entered the job market and, with most of them taking on professional and managerial positions, the typical Singaporean consumer profile has changed (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005). One of the noteworthy changes is that the proportion of women who are educated and who are earning income independently has increase significantly (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005). With dual income households becoming increasingly common in Singapore, the family income has increased. Spending on the household expenditure has increased as well. Ophone can use this opportunities to gain a bigger market in Singapore.
3.2 Consumer Behavior
With increased affluence and greater emphasis on quality of life, ownership of most consumer durables has increased significantly over the last decade. This trend is likely to continue. As new and better products and services become widely available and the population becomes IT-literate, Singaporeans are getting increasingly likely to want or need essential or lifestyle goods and services like personal computers, mobile phones and Internet access/subscription (Brown, 1998).
In the other case, Singapore is known as a modern city, where the country side has no difference with the city. Shopping malls are sprouted in almost every part of the country. For Singaporean, life is not complete without shopping (National University of Singapore, 2006). Since, they have been affluence and educated, and most have traveled abroad, Singaporeans are becoming very demanding. They emphasize a product more in terms of service, quality, convenience, variety and state-of-the-art technology (Brown, 1998). They will spend their shopping dollars where it offers the best experience, value and price. With Ophone's competitive advantages, Singaporeans will definitely be attracted to purchase the phone.#p#分页标题#e#
4.0 Political dynamics 政治性动力
Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong has described Singapore's political self-renewal system as well-balanced, with a good mix of very experienced ministers (CNA, 2008). Singapore possessed a distinct political culture, which fit into no simple category formulated by political scientists. It was centralized, strict, and statist. It was also pragmatic, rational, and legalistic (Goh, 2005). Once again, Singapore can be considered as a business-friendly environment country.
In addition, the World Bank in its report "Doing Business 2005" rates Singapore as the 3rd country where it is easy to conduct various businesses and trade. KPMG's Competitive Alternatives study analyses 27 costs components including wages, freight, business taxes, rend and utilities and Singapore is in the first place for being the least bureaucratic place for doing business in Asia (Economic Development Board, 2008). Therefore, Singapore has sustained its growth through unusually clean and efficient government (the economist, 2007).
Moreover, Singapore is a major business hub both in Asia and the world. Apart from that, Singapore rank second in most technologically ready nation in Asia, just rank behind Japan (Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007). Also, Singapore is placed second world's freest economy after Hong Kong. This implies that Ophone will be successful to enter Singapore because the Singapore citizens will easily accept the new solar system handphone's battery (Ophone).
4.1 Role of government
On the debate about effective industrial policy-making, no topic stimulates more arguments than the role of government. Recognizing that Singapore's economic progress is highly dependent on the development trends of global economics, the government places a greater emphasis on the importance of expending overseas trade and investment networks to complement its domestic economy (Goh, 2005).
Apart from that, Singapore signed many trade agreements; one of them is Free trade agreement (FTA) which enhance the favourable agreement between two or more countries. This include relaxed or removal of quantities import restriction; hassle-free custom restriction; improved market access for various commercial or professional services; easier entry for businessmen (FTA, 2008), with the FTA agreement, as stated above, it will support the launch of Ophone in Singapore.
4.2 Government incentives
Financial and tax incentives are granted upon application to target sectors and to significant foreign investors through the various government agencies, in particular the Economic Development Board (EDB), Trade Development Board (TDB), Monetary Authority of Singapore, and National Science and Technology Board. This encourages foreign investors to invest in Singapore and that's why the solar power battery mobile phone also benefited from entering to Singapore.#p#分页标题#e#
According to IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook (2005), Singapore is placed fourth in the world and particularly being the first in Asia for the most attractive investment incentives from government. Thus, this indicated that launching the Ophone in Singapore will only benefit both the consumer as well the company, not only the consumers can try the newly innovated solar power battery based mobile phone as well the company selling the products do get some tax incentives from the government and so the company will be better off.
5.0 Conclusion 结论
In conclusion, economic environment; cultural environment; and political and legal environment context in a county play a significant role in deciding to market Ophone.
Economic indicator consists of population, income, consumption patterns and infrastructure, this economic indicator provides the company with the relevant information about the Singapore's economic as a whole. Based on the analysis above, Singapore is indeed is a good market to introduce Ophone due to the high demand of the mobile phone by its citizens with their high purchasing power.
Cultural indicator consists of Singapore society as a whole as well as the consumer behavior toward certain products. Based on the above analysis, Singaporean have been affluence and educated, and most have traveled abroad, Singaporeans are becoming very demanding and they emphasize a product more in terms of service, quality, convenience, variety and state-of-the-art technology. Therefore, with Ophone's competitive advantages, Singaporeans will definitely be attracted to purchase the phone.
In addition, political and legal environment in the country indicate how effective is the government doing and measure about the political stability within the country. It is evidence that Singapore rank second in most technologically ready nation in Asia, Ophone is believed would be accepted by the majority. Apart from that, the government also plays an important role in encouraging investment. This benefited Ophone as Ophone will be given financial and tax incentives granted which make Ophone easier to launch their product in Singapore.
After all, apart from the above analysis on the environmental forces, many other issues also need to be analyzing, such as positioning strategy; product strategy; price strategy; place strategy as well as promotion strategy. All these combined together to generate an outcome weather Ophone will be successful in Singapore market.

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