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出国留学生MLA科研论文研究与写作规范

时间:2016-09-24 10:33:04 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
MLA科研论文研究与写作规范
 
在你的留学生涯中,根据国外大学的教学与要求,你需要写了很多个人的文章,提出你的想法,感情和阐明观点、意见,但你或许没有充足的信息来源或想法。但是,一些科目和任务,需要你超越个人的知识和经验。在你进行研究时,希望探索一种思想,探讨一个问题,解决一个问题,或提出一个论点,迫使你向外界的帮助。然后,你必须寻求,调查,并使用超越我们的个人资源的材料。在科研论文中出现这样的调查的结果和结论。科研论文描述了一个学生的演示文稿的学术的研究。这是留学生必须要适应融合应对的过程,无论是新环境的生活,还是学习上的思维模式、语言交流模式以及对新的思维与环境的融合,才能让你的学业与生活跟得上学校的步伐。
 
MLA科研论文基本原则
 
1,架构必须清晰,表述必须清楚,逻辑必须合理,证据必须客观,态度必须严谨,尊重他人的劳动和贡献.
,2,设置研究标准,学术模式文,很准确地表达问题,研究方法要设置良好并很好地实施,数据假设要合理、有用, 促进知识.
,3,建议要精确、易理解、有说服力、语气恰当.
研究性论文的写作要求
(一)题名(Title,Topic)
题名即题目或标题。题名是用最恰当、最简明的词语反映论文中最重要的特定内容的逻辑组合。
论文题目是一篇论文给出的涉及论文范围与水平的第一个重要信息,也是必须考虑到有助于选定关键词不达意和编制题录、索引等二次文献可以提供检索的特定实用信息。 论文题目十分重要,必须用心斟酌选定。有人描述其重要性,用了下面的一句话:“论文题目是文章的一半”。 对论文题目的要求是:准确得体:简短精炼:外延和内涵恰如其分:醒目。
(二)作者姓名和单位(Author and department)
这一项属于论文署名问题。署名一是为了表明文责自负,二是记录作用的劳动成果,三是便于读者与作者的联系及文献检索(作者索引)。大致分为二种情形,即:单个作者论文和多作者论文。后者按署名顺序列为第一作者、第二作者……。重要的是坚持实事求是的态度,对研究工作与论文撰写实际贡献最大的列为第一作者,贡献次之的,列为第二作者,余类推。注明作者所在单位同样是为了便于读者与作者的联系。
(三)摘要(Abstract)
论文一般应有摘要,有些为了国际交流,还有外文(多用英文)摘要。它是论文内容不加注释和评论的简短陈述。其他用是不阅读论文全文即能获得必要的信息。 摘要应包含以下内容:#p#分页标题#e#
①从事这一研究的目的和重要性;
②研究的主要内容,指明完成了哪些工作;
③获得的基本结论和研究成果,突出论文的新见解;
④结论或结果的意义。
(四)关键词(Key words)
关键词属于主题词中的一类。主题词除关键词外,还包含有单元词、标题词的叙词。
主题词是用来描述文献资料主题和给出检索文献资料的一种新型的情报检索语言词汇,正是由于它的出现和发展,才使得情报检索计算机化(计算机检索)成为可能。 主题词是指以概念的特性关系来区分事物,用自然语言来表达,并且具有组配功能,用以准确显示词与词之间的语义概念关系的动态性的词或词组。
注意事项
论文摘要之撰写通常在整篇论文将近完稿期间开始,以期能包括所有之内容。但亦可提早写作,然后视研究之进度作适当修改。有关论文摘要写作时应注意下列事项:
(1).整理你的材料使其能在最小的空间下提供最大的信息面。
(2).用简单而直接的句子。避免使用成语、俗语或不必要的技术性用语。
(3).请多位同僚阅读并就其简洁度与完整性提供意见。
(4).删除无意义的或不必要的字眼。但亦不要矫枉过正,将应有之字眼过份删除,如在英文中不应删除必要之冠词如a'' an'' the等。
(5).尽量少用缩写字。在英文的情况较多,量度单位则应使用标准化者。特殊缩写字使用时应另外加以定义。
(6).不要将在文章中未提过的数据放在摘要中。
(7).不要为扩充版面将不重要的叙述放入摘要中,即使摘要仅能以一两句话概括,就让维持这样吧,切勿画蛇添足。
(8).不要将文中之所有数据大量地列于摘要中,平均值与标准差或其它统计指标仅列其最重要的一项即可。
(9).不要置放图或表于摘要之中,尽量采用文字叙述。
MLA科研论文装订规范
封面
目录
摘要
Abstract
前言
正文
结论
致谢
参考文献
毕业设计小结
附录
封底
四、 参考文献格式
序号、作者、书名(论文名)、出版社(期刊名)、出版时间(期刊时间)
注:完成1500字的外文文献译文
 
MLA科研论文英文叙述范例:
1Research and Writing
1.1THE RESEARCH PAPER AS A FORM OF EXPLORATION
During your school career you have probably written many personal essays that presented your thoughts, feelings, and opinions and that did not refer to any other source of information or ideas. Some subjects and assignments, however, require us to go beyond our personal knowledge and experience. We undertake research when we wish to explore an idea, probe an issue, solve a problem, or make an argument that compels us to turn to outside help. We then seek out, investigate, and use materials beyond our personal resources. The findings and conclusions of such an inquiry appear in the research paper. The term research paper describes a presentation of student research that may be in a printed, an electronic, or a multimedia format.#p#分页标题#e#
The research paper is generally based on primary research, secondary research, or a combination of the two. Primary research is the study of a subject through firsthand observation and investigation, such as analyzing a literary or historical text, a film, or a performance; conducting a survey or an interview; or carrying out a laboratory experiment. Primary sources include statistical data, historical documents, and works of literature or art. Secondary research is the examination of studies that other researchers have made of a subject. Examples of secondary sources are books and articles about political issues, historical events, scientific debates, or literary works.
Most academic papers depend at least partly on secondary research. No matter what your subject of study, learning to investigate, review, and productively use information, ideas, and opinions of other researchers will play a major role in your development as a student. The sorts of activities that constitute a research paper—identifying, locating, assessing, and assimilating others' research and then developing and expressing your own ideas clearly and persuasively—are at the center of the educational experience.
These skills are by no means just academic. Like the research papers you write in school, many reports and proposals required in business, government, and other professions rely on secondary research. Learning how to write a research paper, then, can help prepare you for assignments in your professional career. It is difficult to think of any profession that would not require you to consult sources of information about a specific subject, to combine this information with your ideas, and to present your thoughts, findings, and conclusions effectively.
Research increases your knowledge and understanding of a subject. Sometimes research will confirm your ideas and opinions; sometimes it will challenge and modify them. But almost always it will help to shape your thinking. Unless your instructor specifically directs you otherwise, a research paper should not merely review publications and extract a series of quotations from them. Rather, you should look for sources that provide new information, that helpfully survey the various positions already taken on a specific subject, that lend authority to your viewpoint, that expand or nuance your ideas, that offer methods or modes of thought you can apply to new data or subjects, or that furnish negative examples against which you wish to argue. As you use and scrupulously acknowledge sources, however, always remember that the main purpose of doing research is not to summarize the work of others but to assimilate and to build on it and to arrive at your own understanding of the subject.
A book like this cannot present all the profitable ways of doing research. Because this handbook emphasizes the mechanics of preparing effective papers, it may give you the mistaken impression that the process of researching and writing a research paper follows a fixed pattern. The truth is that different paths can and do lead to successful research papers. Some researchers may pursue a more or less standard sequence of steps, but others may find themselves working less sequentially. In addition, certain projects lend themselves to a standard approach, whereas others may call for different strategies. Keeping in mind that researchers and projects differ, this book discusses activities that nearly all writers of research papers perform, such as selecting a suitable topic, conducting research, compiling a working bibliography, taking notes, outlining, and preparing the paper.#p#分页标题#e#
If you are writing your first research paper, you may feel overwhelmed by the many tasks discussed here. This handbook is designed to help you learn to manage a complex process efficiently. As you follow the book's advice on how to locate and document sources, how to format your paper, and so forth, you may be tempted to see doing a paper as a mechanical exercise. Actually, a research paper is an adventure, an intellectual adventure rather like solving a mystery: it is a form of exploration that leads to discoveries that are new—at least to you if not to others. The mechanics of the research paper, important though they are, should never override the intellectual challenge of pursuing a question that interests you. This quest or search should guide your research and your writing. Even though you are just learning how to prepare a research paper, you may still experience some of the excitement of pursuing and developing ideas that is one of the great satisfactions of research, and scholarship.
1.2THE RESEARCH PAPER AS A FORM OF WRITING
A research paper is a form of written communication. Like other kinds of nonfiction writing—letters, memos, reports, essays, articles, books — it should present information and ideas clearly and effectively. You should not let the mechanics of gathering source materials, taking notes, and documenting sources make you forget to apply the knowledge and skills you have acquired through previous writing experiences.
This handbook is not about expository writing. (See 1.12 for a selected list of useful books on composition, usage, language, and style.) It is, instead, a guide for the preparation of research papers. No set of conventions for preparing a manuscript can replace lively and intelligent writing, however, and no amount of research and documentation can compensate for a poor presentation of ideas. Although you must fully document the facts and opinions you draw from your research.
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