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代写留学生论文|市场开放度与企业标记分布的关系

时间:2016-12-13 16:08来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
本文介绍了市场的开放性和公司的标记分布之间的关系。理论预测的企业异质性与国际贸易Melitz和Ottaviano最近文献的描述和建立工作的基础。Melitz和作品提供了一个框架,可以容纳多个异构的国家内和产业间贸易。此外,它允许变量的加价率,较低的溢价更激烈的竞争同时高溢价的公司更富有成效的指控。在企业层面,Melitz和Ottaviano预测:1)标记是负相关的市场规模;2)标记和企业生产率呈正相关。
 
This paper presents the relationship between market openness and markup distribution of firms. Theoretical predictions by the recent literature on firm heterogeneity and international trade by Melitz and Ottaviano (2007) are described and build up the infrastructure of the work. Melitz and Ottaviano offer a framework that can accommodate multiple, heterogeneous countries in intra and inter industry trade. Moreover, it allows variable markups, lower markups with tougher competition meanwhile higher markups are charged by firms that are more productive. At the firm-level, the Melitz and Ottaviano predict that: 1) markups are negatively linked to market size; 2) markups and firm productivity are positively related.
 
INTRODUCTION 简介
This seminar paper on the topic of "Firm-level Heterogeneity and markups", aims to analyze heterogeneous firms' behavior in the international trade. "Heterogeneity of firms in productivity creates gains from trade so that the more productive firms gain market share at the expense of the less productive ones raising the average productivity in the economy". (Bekkers 2008, p.16).
 
Two factors can contribute to the reallocation effect of trade in the new trade theory: enhanced labor market competition or enhanced product market competition. Since 2003 that Melitz significant paper on firms' decision to export was published, there have been several other literatures on the topic with heterogeneous firms' behavior.
 
The paper presented here is based on the paper introduced by Melitz and Ottaviano (2007) that particularly links productivity, prices and markups to the number of competing firms. It predicts the effects of openness to trade on the market structure and explains on the firm-level performance levels. Ottaviano, Tabuchi and Thisse (2002) model the monopolistically competitive markets differently, they develop a linear demand system with horizontal product differentiation where the price elasticity of residual demand is not fixed anymore but it is increasing in the number of competitors. The preferences are not CES. The MO model takes this demand system and builds the model on it. Relaxing the CES assumption in MO model is a distinction to Melitz work before. The performance measures are: price, productivity, market size and mark-ups. Pricing behavior depends on the number of competitors and the average price level in contrast to standard CES-preferences where prices are .fixed mark-ups over marginal cost. (Bekkers 2008, p25) A monopolistic competition model is to set where firms maximize profits based on their linear residual demand curve, taking N and p as given, and there is free entry into the industry. The closed-economy version and then the open-economy with a two-country case are presented followed by predictions for the effects of trade liberalizations on trade considering a bilateral and unilateral liberalization. An overview of similar models is given with a try to explain and motivate why this model is important(责任编辑:BUG)


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