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国际商务管理留学作业:A Comparative Study of Phatic Language Between Chinese and English in Trade Negotiation

时间:2012-03-29 17:01:24 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

国际商务管理留学作业:A Comparative Study of Phatic Language Between Chinese and English in Trade Negotiation

Abstract: International Business Negotiation is the key part of International Trade, only we understand the concept and effect of negotiation ,can we occupy the superiroty position in international trade. International Business Negotiation means that the difference sujects.International Business Trade Negotiation is a cross –countries compaign. It’s important to know the different countries culture environment and consider the difference of culture in business negotiation .If we wanna  get the success of foreign negotiation  ,it’s necessary to understand other educators’discrepancy of thought ways ,negotiation ways and styles, customs, guesture language ,time opinions and others. To add the chance of achieving our aims based on their culture to formulate and admend our negotiation tactics.

Key Words: International Trade;Business Negotiation;Phatic Languages ;Culture Discrepancy

Contents
A Comparative Study of Phatic LanguageBetween Chinese and English in Trade Negotiation 2
PartⅠ The Comparison of Phatic Language Between Chinese and English Before Trade Negotiation.
1.1 The Difference of language. 5
1.1.1 The Difference of Oral Language. 5
1.1.2 The Difference of Body Language. 5
1.2  The Difference of Etiquette. 6
1.2.1 Meeting Etiquette 6
PartⅡ Analysis the Features of contract language to Compare the Difference of Phatic Language in the Process of Trade Negotiation. 8
2.1    Phraseology 8
2.1.1   Formal Language 8
2.1.2 Use more ancient words 9
2.1.3 Capitalize stressed 11
2.1.4 The Tense and the Voice 11
PartⅢ The Difference of Phatic Language between Chinese and English after Negotiation. 12
3.1 The Condition of Successful Negotiation. 12
3.1.1 The Comparison of Language. 12
3.1.2 The Difference of Etiquette. 13
3.2 The Condition of Failed Negotiation 14
3.2.1 The Comparison of Language. 15
3.2.1.1 The Comparison Compliments 15
Conclusion 16
Bibliography 16

Business  negotiation is an action to achieve economic strategy, definite mutual rights and obligations to consult between interested parties. It’s the guarantee to research the feature and principles to ensure negotiation successful. In terms of negotiation features, we can summarize following three points. Firstly, business negotiation is aim to get economic benefit, the negotiation doesn’t talk benefit must lose its value and significance. Secondly, business negotiation is the center of value negotiation, on one hand, we must assist our benefit, price center, on the other hand, we couldn’t only limited to price but also reclaim our thought, achieve more benefit from other points. Lastly, business negotiation concern the tight and accurate of contract clauses, it reflects the authority and obligations, at the same time ,that’s the premise to guarantee more benefits.#p#分页标题#e#
Successful negotiation is the result of handling language art between interested parties. Now, we’ll analysis the discrepancy of Negotiation Phatic Language, then analysis the culture differences from Etiquette.

PartⅠ The Comparison of Phatic Language Between Chinese and English Before Trade Negotiation.
1.1  The Difference of language.
1.1.1 The Difference of Oral Language. 
At the beginning of negotiation, the first impression is rather important, we should create the negotiation atmosphere of friendly and relaxing. When introduce ourselves to others, we should be natural, it’s badly to express naughty and self—conceited. The introduced person should stand up and smile, of course ,we can be politely to say ”Nice to meet you” ().Meantime ,we should be courtesy to ask others’ name. For example, May I know your name? End introduction, we could talk based on the common interested topic.(稍作寒暄),to communicate, create kindly atmosphere ,and ready for the next business negotiation.

1.1.2 The Difference of Body Language.
Attitude at the beginning of the negotiations is to grasp the atmosphere of the talks plays an important role. Visual when each other, should remain in each other's eyes their eyes to the forehead triangle area Square,Make the other person feel concerned think you sincerely and seriously. Palm dashed is better than down. gesture ,of course, it is not appropriate for gestures in order to avoid frivolous. Avoid arms cross in front of the chest, so it is insolence. An important task at the beginning of the negotiations is researching the bottom of each other. therefore, We must conscientiously listen to each other's speeches, carefully observe the behavior of other expressions, and appropriate response, and in this way can understand each other's intentions, and showing respect and politeness.

1.2  The Difference of Etiquette.
Etiquette is  the most important part of International Business Trade, it’s the principle of every joiner must observe .However ,for reasons of culture discrepancy ,to a country’s appropriately etiquette to business person ,maybe express badly, even discourtesy, then produce misunderstanding, grate, even the failure of negotiation .As international business negotiator ,it’s necessary to understand those culture discrepancy and know the corresponding measures.

1.2.1 Meeting Etiquette
Meeting is a totally important action in trade negotiation .Meeting Etiquette contain introduction etiquette and shook hands etiquette. Generally speaking, introduction is introducing teamers respectively .The turn is ladies first, and high position first. Called “Lady” “Miss” “Mr”. We always call sb as “comrade” ,but this word means homosexuality in western countries .So, we should forbid to use this word in International Trade Negotiation to avoid misunderstanding. #p#分页标题#e#
The most important etiquette is shaking hands in China, and it’s also an international etiquette. It looks very simple, however, this small action links with the image of person and company, the successful of negotiation or not.
The power of shaking hands. For Chinese, we often end it after shaking , not to be heavy .On the contrary, the Europeans and Americans like heavy shaking, the light means feeble and non—confidence.
The time of shaking hands. The time shouldn’t be too long, but not too be short. International standard time is about 3sec. However, if elder friend meet or achieve an important agreement , or after successful negotiation, the time could be a little long.
The turn of shaking hands. Lady shakes hand with gentlemen, gentlemen doesn’t be shaking first. When there are so many workers , we should kook for correct person, avoid crossing and disputing.
Shook hands with actions, Shook hands and eyes to address each other and with a smile, a tribute; not looking around or face without expression. Looking showed that inattention, expressionless display unfriendly, both are lack of respect for others.
Of course, shook hands isn’t their etiquette in some countries. For instance, the Japanese always bow to respect person; Thailand hands folded, French kiss, the Argentine people not only kiss and hug, The man kissing women, women kissed a woman, but men don't kiss a Man. In most African countries, used to using body greet - long hours put on the shoulders of the guests
How to use those meeting etiquette should be based on different cultures ,when in Rome, do as the Romans is the best policy.
PartⅡ Analysis the Features of contract language to Compare the Difference of Phatic Language in the Process of Trade Negotiation.

2.1    Phraseology
2.1.1   Formal Language
For instance, the “in accordance with” is more strict and formal than “according to” in contract. The latter often used at daily life and oral. Others such as “be liable for; provided that; unless otherwise; be deemed to; in the even that; in the case of; where” and so on.Those words could express the law feature of contract.
Eg1):If the contract can not come into effect within six months after the date of signing the contract, both parties shall have the rigt to terminate the contract.
Eg2):In case the contract can not come into force within six months after the date of signing the contract, the contract shall become null and void and binding neither to party A nor to party B
This two prographies are same meaning , but the result is totally different The former is a common expression ;the latter, however, no matter what about it’s frame or phraseology is more formal and coherence than the former, this is the acquirement of contract language .

2.1.2 Use more ancient words
The ancient words mean that they wouldn’t be used in other documents, only be used in trade contract in English. Meantime, this words would be composed by ”here, there, where and preposition”.#p#分页标题#e#
Here group. Here and preposition equal to preposition and this. For example: hereafter (From now on), hereby, hereof, hereto,   herewith, hereupon etc. Those mean after this, by this, of this, to this, with this, upon this.
There group。 There and preposition equal to preposition and that. For instance, thereafter, thereby, thereof, thereto, therefor, etc. Those mean after that, by that, of that, to that, for that.
Where group,Where and preposition equal to preposition and which. Familiar words like whereas, wherein, whereby, whereof, wherewith etc. Equally, means as which, in which, by which, of which, with which.
Here group and there group  usually are adverbs, means time, place, ways and condition. Where is conjonction.
Eg3):This contract is made by and between China National Native Produce & Animal By—Products Corporation, Guangdong Native Produce Branch (hereafter called the seller) and American Trading Co, Ltd(hereafter called buyer) whereby the Seller agree to sell and the Buyer agree to buy the under –mentioned goods in accordance with the terms and conditions stipulated below.
Eg4): Both parties shall keep secret all technical know—how, technical documentation and all the information of hydrology, geology and production of the Contract Factory regarding the business of the other party, being either technical or commercial of nature, during the validity period of the contract as well as thereafter for a period of 10 years.
The first hereafter brief “China National Native Produce & Animal By—Products Corporation, Guangdong Native Produce Branch” as “seller”, the second hereafter has the same function. This make the contract language be more concision in Eg3. Whereby and thereafter not only express correct meaning, but also conform to the phraseology and style of contract. Use more ancient words could make contract language more standard and strict.

2.1.3 Use more modal verbs.
It’s a obviously feature to use more modal verbs in trade contract. The highest frequencies used is“shall” in those words. “shall ” is the most strict word for law document, it means to bear responsibilities and obligations. Provided can’t fulfill the obligations contained that is breaking a contract. “shall” could be translated to “would, should, must” or no translation. We need to pay more attention to the modal verbs used in contract are more difference than that of other documents.
Eg5)  All dispute arising from the performance of this contract shall be settled through friendly negotiation. Shall no settlement be reached through negotiation, the case shall then be submitted for arbitration to China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (Beijing) and the rules of this Commission shall be applied. The award of the arbitration shall be final and binding upon both parties. The arbitration fee shall be borne by the losing party unless otherwise awarded by the commission during the course of the arbitration; the contract shall be performed except for the part under arbitration.#p#分页标题#e#
“Shall” had been expressed by 7 times. Generally speaking, “shall” used by first pronoun, shows that circumbendibus, but here “shall” represented powers and obligations, for result of enforce.

2.1.3 Capitalize stressed 
In the course of business English contracts, Some Words or terms must be capitalized, including some specific organizations. For instance, arbitration institutions ; key words ; the specific terms and appendix ; relevant laws and regulations ; price terms.
Capitalize aim is to emphasize the important provisions to achieve the effect was once opened contract can pay attention to these terms and projects.
Eg8):The seller shall mark on each package with fadeless paint the package number, gross weight, net weight, measurement and warning such as:”KEEP AWAY FROM MOISTURE””HANDLE WITH CARE” THIS SIDE UP”•••
Once the contract is performed to see the contract, both in loading or unloading process of transportation, under which goods are properly handled.

2.1.4 The Tense and the Voice
The contract involves want to be in the future, but all the contract language use the simple present tense, and has become a practice. This is a characteristic of legal language.
Eg11)A: The rules and regulations of the work-site shall be observed by workers.
B: Workers shall observe the rules and regulations of the work-site.
The above two examples exactly the same, The difference lies in the way of expression, the difference formal contract language and language differences. Contract language is to direct and natural expression way of expression。
PartⅢ The Difference of Phatic Language between Chinese and English after Negotiation.
Trade negotiation could end of successful or failures. No mater how to end ,the two parties would have different ways to express it .Of course ,the phatic must be difference ,following chapters would be analysis form successful and failure.

3.1 The Condition of Successful Negotiation.
Trade negotiation end of successful, that would link with the difference of language they used and habits.

3.1.1 The Comparison of Language.
In the view of successful negotiation and their great kindness ,two parties always say “thanks” to express their basic gratitude I thankfulness I. For the difference of culture, however ,there is different answers. We Chinese are modest , impolitic , viewed those are our traditional virtue consequently When the westerns say “thanks” to us  ,we are accustomed to answer “No ,No ,No ,these just are humble fare or “ We only preparation of light wine , it’s not great kindles ,don’t mind it please” or other compliments languages ,see it from China ,these are the best answer,, as the western see , however, those answers are unacceptable and couldn’t be understood , they wouldn’t  think you’re modest ,but you don’t believe their judgement , or you are the man self-conceited and hypocritical. Thus, when we have dealings, with western, we don’t need to feign modest, we should like them and then say ”you’re welcome” “It’s my pleasure” and such#p#分页标题#e#

3.1.2 The Difference of Etiquette.
Chinese people used to drink after other end of event ,The analysis shows that with a dinning etiquette. The Chinese have an old saying ”People with Food Day” can been seem from diet position in the eyes of the Chinese people, therefore, the Chinese people will eat as it is of paramount importance. Chinese food is not lonely focus on color , flavor and Italy, even more than on nutrition stress, only delicious and good-looking, nutrition on the contrary , it is not important hungry. Eating pay more attention to nutrition match and absorption of western, is a scientific concept of eating .more attention to the food’s nutrition in the west while ignoring how the color , flavor of food, their diet is more to life and healthy ,doesn’t seem are enjoying .If the player is made, we usually said your are young If the player is female we always tend to appearance ,we always tend to appearance, for example , Chinese people habit is to praise them with (比喻),express the literary , meaning , First, “you’re the best in the ladies” appear so weak, and for the people in western are usually say “ your are woman hero”.
In terms of restaurant atmosphere, the Chinese people like the fun at dinner time  a lot of people together and drink , said that laughs, we dine together to create a lively warm atmosphere. Unless it is on and an official banquet , he Chinese people on the table there is not the special etiquette, when the westerners eat, like humorous and quiet environment , they think that must pay attention to your manners at the dinner table, not going to etiquette, for example, when eating can’t issue is difficult to listen to the voice .Western banquet etiquette of different characteristics ,In China ,form ancient time and most of them are left for the statue, when hosted a banquet for the guests, position should be seat of Honor of the distinguished guest on the left, then in turn arrangements. In the western, It was right for the statue, the interval between men and woman separate. Female guest seats slightly higher than the male guests seats and men to help female guest chair unveiled init won right, to show their respect for woman . In addition, the westerners eat to sit and think that stop and bow match they eat very bad ,but this is exactly way of the Chinese usually eating. When eating western food, he doesn’t advocate to drink on the contrary in the Chinese dinner, wine is the fixture, wine spirits, sometimes in order to show respect for each other, is a glass wine drinking a glass of drink.

3.2 The Condition of Failed Negotiation
The trade negotiation couldn’t achieve fixed result, that is , end of failure, thus the trade parties must be obvious different on language.

3.2.1 The Comparison of Language.
3.2.1.1 The Comparison Compliments
Negotiations between the sides although failed to agree on the desired results, so, for the future development and cooperation of other aspect ,the parties would say some other words. Seemly #p#分页标题#e#
From the Chinese people customs ,we usually praise them , for instance :your company of course is a famous enterprise, talent more which are the negotiations personnel are good negotiators. If that is the praise of men, usually said. Young and promising, vigour, the young deserve to be treated with respect. At the time of praise and girls are often involved in each other's appearance. For example, the woman hero, not only people such as peonies, and so the ability to make people shall not refuse. Chinese are accustomed to ways to praise the other side, literary, but some translated into the language of British and American countries will be more or less a little hollow and weak, or may have different meaning expression. For example, female hero, British and American countries usually say, " You are the woman hero ".

3.2.1.2 The Comparison Answered
When the Chinese people to accept the compliment and reaction is not to similar, basically have the following hinds:
1> the ambiguous answer .The Chinese are introverted, implicative, seldom publicly revealing his inner world, some think Chinese culture is kind of culture with wall of truth, because of this , their emotions can rarely,
2> Deny answer . In this kind of response , the speaker thinks the compliment by people or things not worth won the award , it seems a bit discrepant said probes the compliment .Chinese speaking never implicative , exquisite, therefore , near self-adulation praises, often to deny himself, show modesty .
3> Abate answers. Language  is the cannier of culture, language couldn’t leave culture and also effects the culture .In different social, meet with others and praise the greetings, in what context of what be praised etc ,are different, These different research can help us understand western culture in an effective way. In language learning , we learn language form ,rules, we should also actively understand its cultural knowledge and social customs code In the way, can we truly and speakers politeness smooth communication.
Conclusion
Knowledge is indispensable in international trade negotiations and cultural knowledge for bearing carrier of different cultural habits respect to our talks will have a significant impact. Mutual respect between cultures, is the basis of their own interests to achieve, in the course of negotiations, thus, we need to fully understand their own cultural differences and application of the protocol, to bring our interests of the need to achieve mutual benefit and a win - win situation.
 

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