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分析交易型和变革型领导风格

时间:2015-11-28 16:29:19 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
分析交易型和变革型领导风格
Analysing transactional and transformational leadership styles
 
组织是一个社会的安排,它能实现集体的目标,控制自己的表现,有一个边界把它从它的环境中分离开来。组织行为是研究人们关于知识的应用,个人和群体如何在组织中行事。OB解释人们的组织关系依据整个人,整个集团,整个组织,和整个社会制度和建立更好的人际关系,通过实现人类的目标、组织目标和社会目标。
几乎每个组织的基础在于管理哲学,价值观、愿景和目标,反过来它推动由正式组织,非正式组织和社会环境组成的组织文化。组织文化决定在组织内的领导,交流,集体动态的类型。这作为工作的生活质量,通过工人指导他们的动机感知度。从所有这些元素最后结果是表现,个人满意度,和个人成长和发展。他们结合建立模型或框架,来进行组织运作。
一个组织的工作动力是一个基本的心理过程。从基于数据的综合分析我们结束了,竞争力问题似乎本质上是有大量的动机的。(米内、瓦赫特尔 易卜拉希米,1995)。工作动机是最重要的行为的因素,和观念,性格,态度,行为一样,学习到不是行为的唯一解释。许多因素影响动机和工作满意度在一个研究和开发环境中(路桑斯,1998)。动机目标导向的行为在这样的方式行事,与其他认知过程结合。根据路桑斯,有意识的人类行为的范围以及动机和在某个地方激励交易之间在反射动作(e.g 一个喷嚏或眼睛的摆动)和后天获得的习惯(像刷牙)。(华莱士和斯赛拉革,1982:53)。
 
An organisation is a social arrangement which attain collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. In a systematic approach Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. OB interprets people organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system and builds better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives.
 
Almost every organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals and in turn it drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. The organization culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. This as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation perceive by workers. From all these elements the final outcomes are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. They combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from.#p#分页标题#e#
 
动机,工作满意度和有效的工作表现之间的关系-Relation between Motivation, job satisfaction and effective work performance
 
In an Organisation work motivation is a basic psychological process. From data-based comprehensive analysis we come to an end that competitiveness problems seem to be largely motivational in nature (Mine, Wachtel, Ebrahimi, 1995). Work motivation is most important element of behaviour along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning not the only explanation of behaviour. Many factors affect motivation and job satisfaction in a research and development environment (Luthans, 1998). Motivation goal-oriented behavior acts in such a way as to have conjunction with other cognitive processes. According to Luthans, the range of conscious human behaviour along with motivation and motivating deal somewhere between reflex actions (e.g a sneeze or flutter of the eyelids) and learned habits (like as brushing one's teeth) (Wallace and Szilag 1982: 53).
 
According to Luthans (1998) it is the process that evokes, energizes, provides, and strengthens behaviour and performance and it is the process of exciting people to action and to achieve a desired task. Motivation may be intrinsic or extrinsic.
 
In 1976, Locke and Lathan include or deal with all or nearly all aspects of definition of job satisfaction a pleasing or enjoyable emotional state resulting from the assessment of one's job or job experience. According to Mitchell and Lasan 1987, job satisfaction is comes from those things that are viewed as important result of employee's perception. In the organizational behaviour field, job satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied attitude. In an organization, motivation is extremely important because it's one of the only things that push you to excel and to keep you focused on your task at hand! To succeed in anything in life, you have to be motivated. If you want your organization to succeed, then motivation is the key.
 
The important dimensions to job satisfaction are:
 
Job satisfaction is an arousing intense feeling response to a job situation.
 
Job satisfaction in many instances determined by how well outcome meet or surpass expectations. For example, in an organization if employees feel that they are working much harder than others in the department but are receiving what they deserves less will causes probably have a negative feelings towards the work, the boss and or coworkers and if they feel they are being treated very well and receives what they deserves and paid equitably, they are likely to have positive feelings towards the job.
 
Job satisfaction constitutes several most important characteristics of a job are the work itself, pay, promotion opportunities, supervision and coworkers and attitudes about which people have effective response.#p#分页标题#e#
 
By nature in a given country librarian job satisfaction relies on the economically, organization structure and cultural conditions. Librarians who cannot get an adequate wage affect job satisfaction and motivation and causes feeling of lack of status and social security to maintain his or her family's life causes. In the absence of motivation job satisfaction cannot be talk. Librarian who has high rank or status in the information society will touch the feeling of the quality of the service he provides. And the question arises of how the material and moral element touch the feeling of the job satisfaction of the librarian's gains importance (Ebru, 1995).
 
交易型和变革型领导-Transactional and Transformational Leadership
 
Burns (1978) was one of the first to conceptualize leadership styles in terms of transactional and transformational characteristics. He viewed a leader's behavior on a continuum between transactional and transformational. He suggested that transactional leadership is a style based on bureaucratic authority and legitimacy within the organization. Further, transactional leaders emphasize work standards, assignments, and task-oriented goals. In addition, he believed that transactional leaders tend to focus on task completion and employee compliance, and these leaders rely quite heavily on organizational rewards and punishments to influence employee performance. Al-Mailam (2004) described the transactional leader as an agent of change and goal setter; a leader that works well with employees resulting in improvements in productivity.
 
In contrast, Burns characterized transformational leadership as a style that motivates followers by appealing to higher ideals and moral values. Transformational leaders must be able to define and articulate a vision for their organizations, and the followers must accept the credibility of the leader and motivate and inspire employees to perform beyond expectations and transform both individuals and organizations. (Bass, 1985; Keegan & Hartog, 2004). Subsequently, Bass and Avolio (1987) proposed that transformational leadership is a behavior process comprised of three factors: charisma, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration. They define the first factor or charisma, with respect to how followers perceive and act toward the leader. For example, followers are seen striving to emulate their charismatic leaders; they place a great deal of trust in their leader's judgment, as well as mission; they support the leader's values and typically adopt them, and frequently form strong emotional ties to the leader. It is important to note, however, that charisma and charismatic leadership have often been considered synonymous with transformational leadership (Conger & Kanungo, 1987).
 
As to the second factor, individualized consideration, transformational leaders demonstrate concern for the individual needs of followers, treating followers on a one-to-one basis. Using processes such as mentoring, transformational leaders also raise need perspectives and the goals of followers; that is, they not only identify individual needs, but also raise them appropriate to the challenges confronting followers. Intellectual stimulation is the third key component in the transformational leadership process. With intellectual stimulation, transformational leaders encourage followers to question their old way of doing things or "to break with the past." Followers are supported for questioning their own values, beliefs, and expectations and those of the leader and organization, which may be outdated or inappropriate for current problems. In sum, transformational leaders are able to get followers to perform at maximum levels. They achieve maximum performance because of their ability to inspire followers, to raise their followers' criteria for success, and to have followers think "outside the box" and explore alternative methods for solving problems (Bass, 1985).#p#分页标题#e#
 
组织结构和文化-Organisation Structure and culture
 
Every organisation is composed of certain parts have various functions and are interdependent on each other for a smooth functioning of the organisation. An organisation's structure is a framework that allots a particular space for a particular department or an individual and shows its relationship to the other. There are many forms of zn organisation's structure, the most common of these being the hierarchical and the flat organisational structure.
 
A horizontal organisational structure or the traditional structure or at times, the bureaucratic structure where there are one or more levels between the most junior and the senior most employees and helps in proper distribution of work but can be harmful in terms of efficiency and decision making.
 
A flat organisation modern in approach is much more relaxed where everyone directly reports to a single boss and provide greater speed in the decision making process but then the boss ends up taking care of a lot of things thus making delegation difficult.
 
Structural features of organization are formal, inflexible (except under special conditions and procedures), created and maintained by documentation, and contingency-centered: they set responsibilities, formal rights, and rewards or punishments on which individual behavior or group action is contingent. The structure is adopted "officially," by explicit decision, on the basis of known rules and procedures. It determines how the organization is supposed to operate and for what purposes.
 
4.1 文化-4.1 Culture
 
The culture of an organisation is a set of norms, values and beliefs. These have developed over time, unplanned and emergent. However, the culture of an organisation is something that can have an enormous impact on the way in which an organisation operates, and its effectiveness. It is also something that can be assessed and, if necessary, changed over time. Organisational culture interventions are notorious for their difficulty and duration, but if culture change is needed this should not deter an organisation from embarking on the process of change. Indeed, it may be the key to its survival.
 
Different cultures are reflected in different organisational structures and systems. Indeed, it is important that structures and systems are appropriate to the organisation's culture.
 
Also, different people prefer different organisational cultures.
 
关键文化-Key Cultures
 
Management theory (Harrison) defines four key cultures: -
 
权力-Power
 #p#分页标题#e#
A power culture is frequently found in small campaigning societies. It involves a powerful central character or leader. Its structure is depicted by a web: -
 
Figure 1 Power culture [World animal net]
 
Power culture usually operates informally, with few rules and procedures. Control is
 
exercised by the centre and decisions are taken on the basis of power and influence.
 
Size is a problem for power cultures, as the web can break if it becomes too large and
 
complex. Then, the only way the organisation can remain web-structured is to develop
 
other 'spin-off' organisations, each web-structures in their own right.
 
角色文化-Role Culture
 
Role culture is what was previously known as a 'bureaucracy'. The structure can be depicted as a Greek temple: -
 
Figure 2 Role culture [World animal net]
 
Work is coordinated by a manager, or small number of managers, at the top of the structure. The pillars are strong functional departments. The work of these departments is coordinated and controlled by: -
 
Procedures governing roles e.g. authority definitions and job descriptions.
 
Procedures for communications e.g. document distribution and circulation rules.
 
Rules for settlement of disputes e.g. appeal to lowest crossover points.
 
With ultimate coordination and control by senior manager(s).
 
Position power is the major power source in this culture: personal power is not welcomed and expert power only appreciated 'in its proper place'. Rules and procedures are all encompassing. The success of this culture depends on appropriate allocation of roles and responsibilities. Also, a stable environment is necessary for this culture to work - Greek temples tremble when the ground shakes, and collapse under an earthquake. Role culture is frustrating for individuals who are power orientated or want control over his or her own work and the way in which it is done.
 
工作文化-Task Culture
 
The task culture is job or project orientated. Its structure can be depicted as a net: -
 
Figure 3 Task culture [World animal net]
 
The matrix organisation is one structural form of the task culture.
 
Task culture arranges human resources around the project in hand, and lets the team organise themselves (self-determining teams). Influence is based more on expert power than on position or personal power.#p#分页标题#e#
 
This culture is extremely adaptable, and appropriate for task-centred, mission driven organisations - particularly campaigning organisations - as it enhances creativity and motivation. It is flexible and enables reactivity. However, task culture finds it difficult to achieve economies of scale, or to replicate good success amongst different teams.
 
Management control is largely ceded, apart from determination of tasks and the allocation of people and resources. 'Control freak' managers would certainly be out of their 'comfort zone' in this culture!
 
This system can become strained when the organisation is short of funding or people.
 
Then, the manager can tend to attempt to wrestle back control, and team leaders can begin to compete for funding or staff resources - leading to a breakdown of team mentality and a move towards power or role culture.
 
个人文化-Person Culture
 
Person culture is rarely found in animal protection organisations. It is where the individual is the focus of the organisation. Communes and partnerships (e.g. management consultants or architects) sometimes have this culture. It can be depicted by a cluster: -
 
Figure 4 Person culture [World animal net]
 
This would be extremely unusual for an animal protection society, where a mission or aim is central
 
4.2 变革-4.2 Change
 
Change management is a methodical way of dealing with change, both from the prospect of an organization and on the individual level. Change management has at least three different features: adapting to change, controlling change, and effecting change and a proactive way to dealing with change is at the core of all three aspects. In an organization, change management means defining and implementing procedures and/or technologies to deal with changes in the business environment and to profit from changing opportunities.
 
Purposefully adaptation to change is as critical within an organization as it is in the natural world like in plants and animals, organizations and the individuals in them unavoidable encounter changing conditions that they are powerless to control. Adaptation might include establishing a structured methodology for responding to changes in the business environment (such as a fluctuation in the economy, or a threat from a competitor) or establishing coping mechanisms for responding to changes in the workplace (such as new policies, or technologies).
 
4.3 例子-4.3 Example
 
Bharti Enterprises is one of India's leading business groups with having common concerns in telecom sector with many firsts and innovations to its credit, agri business, insurance and retail. Bharti Airtel was recently ranked amongst the top 10 best performing companies in the world in the BusinessWeek IT 100 list with an aggregate of 37.26 million customers as of end of February'07, spanning mobile, fixed line, broadband and enterprise services.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Bharti provides a kind and pleasant environment, give support, confidence or hope to its employees to put in their best. Hewitt-BT has ranked Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited (BTVL) 14th amongst the 25 Best Employers in India in 2003. Employees are asked to face challenges and show leadership qualities
 
The new structure strengthens empowerment & accountability for business leaders of individual companies as a result of that enhancing the existing high degree of professionalism in the group. Bharti Enterprises will be part of long-term plan architect of all businesses of the group and will provide overall direction and macro strategies and will also be responsible for evaluating new business opportunities, Mergers & Acquisitions and Strategic alliances for the group. Responsibility for business strategy, operations & its results will reside with the business heads of the companies with Bharti Enterprises having a supervisory role. The new structure will be effective April 1, 2007 ensure a high quality pipeline of top leadership talent and be the custodian of Bharti's brand values and business interests.
 
A hierarchical organizational structure followed by Bharti.
 
The new organization structure model takes this forward and forms a harmonious combination of Bharti's entrepreneurial ethos with an enhanced professional culture and empowers business leaders, strengthens accountability and is designed for Bharti Enterprises to focus on overall strategic direction, leadership development & leveraging synergies taking another significant step towards a conglomerate of the future."
 
结论-CONCLUSION
 
We're only just beginning to learn, however, that the O.C. also presents a series of opportunities for organizing structure and culture that will underpin the long-range future of a neighborhood community and its organization.
 
The success of the organizing committee and, ultimately, the organization itself, depends very much on the organizer's understanding of structure and culture, and on an ability to bring about behavioral contingencies and ideological realities for their development. These in turn depend on our relationships with members and leaders: While the kind of organizing "techniques" I've described are absolutely necessary, the work can only succeed when there is mutual respect, affection, and commitment shared by the organizer and the members of the organization.
 
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