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创业型领导:走向一个学习与发展的模式

时间:2016-05-02 18:16:38 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Introduction介绍

创业领导作为一种新的研究范式,最近一直是创业和领导学科的研究和实践的焦点。这是由于的关键作用,在提高个人领导能力,发挥企业家群体,与新企业绩效和成功和显著影响领导者的创业能力在处理高度动荡和竞争的组织环境(cogliser和布里格姆2004;因蒂诺等人。2007;Fernald等人。2005;弗雷,2010;Gupta等人。2004;Kuratko和霍恩斯比1999;swiercz和莱登2002;杨2008)。因此,越来越多的研究集中在探讨企业家的领导作用以及基于创业和领导之间的共同点和联系组织的领导人,企业家的职能(cogliser和布里格姆2004;宫2003)。然而,很少有知识的理论和概念基础的创业领导。
巴盖里和z.a.l. pihie专门开发大学生创业领导能力作为未来的创业领袖在自己的企业或组织设立的有限。本论文试图缩小差距通过文学理论的创业领导和创业领导能力发展的一种综合方法的基础和概念(局域网和穆德2009)。这也解释了创业能力的背景下,大学创业计划的发展,然后提出了一个动态的角度创业学习的基础上创业领导力发展模型。该模型提出了创业领导力发展的过程中,体验,社会互动,观察和反思学习,提供了一个合适的基础创业领导力教育,研究和实践。Entrepreneurial leadership as a new paradigm of inquiry has recently been the focus of research and practice in both entrepreneurship and leadership disciplines. This is due to the critical role that leadership competencies of entrepreneurs play in enhancing individual, group, and new venture performance and success and the significant influences of leaders’ entrepreneurial capabilities in dealing with highly turbulent and competitive environment of current organizations (Cogliser and Brigham 2004; D’Intino et al. 2007; Fernald et al. 2005; Frey, 2010; Gupta et al. 2004; Kuratko and Hornsby 1999; Swiercz and Lydon 2002; Yang 2008). Accordingly, an increasing body of research concentrated on exploring the leadership functions of entrepreneurs as well as entrepreneurial functions of organizational leaders based on the common threads and linkages between entrepreneurship and leadership (Cogliser and Brigham 2004; Vecchio 2003). However, there is little knowledge about the theoretical and conceptual foundations of entrepreneurial leadership. 
Bagheri and Z.A.L. Pihie develop entrepreneurial leadership competencies specifically in university students as prospective entrepreneurial leaders either in their own ventures or in established organizations is limited. This conceptual paper attempts to narrow the gap in literature through presenting the theoretical and conceptual basis of entrepreneurial leadership and an integrated approach to entrepreneurial leadership competencies development (Lans and Mulder 2009). It also explains entrepreneurial competencies development in the context of university entrepreneurship programs and then proposes a model for entrepreneurial leadership development based on a dynamic perspective of entrepreneurial learning. The proposed model presents entrepreneurial leadership development as a process of experiential, social interactive, observational and reflective learning which provides an appropriate foundation for entrepreneurial leadership education, research and practice. #p#分页标题#e#
 
Entrepreneurship and leadership 企业家精神与领导力
 
A review of entrepreneurship and leadership literature reveals the same process of theory evolution in both schools of thought. This process of historical evolution begins with a focus on the innate and exceptional characteristics of successful leaders and entrepreneurs in ‘traits’ theories and the effects of followers and contextual factors on stepping into entrepreneurship and leadership activities in later theories. In between the two ends, there are numerous theories which attempt to give a clearer picture of what leaders and entrepreneurs do to influence a group of people to enact their vision (Gupta et al. 2004; Murphy and Ensher 2008; Yukl 1998). Inconsistency in research findings recently compelled scholars of both fields to shift from traits and situational factors to a dynamic learning process through which entrepreneurs and leaders engage in an evolutionary process (Kempster and Cope 2010) and consciously develop their personal and functional capabilities in order to face the challenges of the current business world (Cope and Watts 2000; Cope 2005; 2003; Kempster 2006; Rae and Carswell 2000; Rae 2000; 2006; Swiercz and Lydon 2002; Young and Sexton 2003). At the individual level, leaders and entrepreneurs also have many common qualities such as innovativeness, propensity to take risks and ability to envision a better future for the business and organization (Fernald et al. 2005). Similarities between the two disciplines are so much that some scholars defined entrepreneurship as a type of leadership and identified most of the entrepreneurs’ behaviours as leadership behaviours, though in a particular economic and complex context (Cogliser and Brigham 2004; Fernald et al. 2005; Vecchio 2003). Concentrating on the differences between entrepreneurship and leadership, other researchers called this definition of entrepreneurship as simplistic and ‘parsimonious’ (Vecchio 2003). Since an entrepreneur is more than just a leader who performs in an established organization, (s)he starts a firm from the first scratch, faces different challenges and crises (Gupta et al. 2004) and leads in an extraordinary complex situation (Cogliser and Brigham 2004). Moreover, entrepreneurs are more complex in personality attributes and skills because they need to play different roles simultaneously (Mattare 2008). Therefore, entrepreneurial leaders need to develop more specific competencies to be able to successfully create a new venture and lead it to success and development (Gupta et al. 2004; Swiercz and Lydon 2002). Despite all the debates on similarities and differences between entrepreneurship and leadership, it is crucial to explore how the two disciplines can help the development of theory and practice in each field, particularly, how the process of  Human Resource Development International 449 theory development in leadership as the more established discipline can inform theory development in entrepreneurship as a more emergent field (Cogliser and Brigham 2004; Vecchio 2003). In terms of practice development, entrepreneurs can take advantage of leadership competencies to cope with the various challenges of new venture creation and thereby increase the probability of their success in the business world. Leaders also can benefit from entrepreneurial competencies to deal with the highly turbulent and competitive environment of current organizations (Cogliser and Brigham 2004). All the theoretical and conceptual overlaps between entrepreneurship and leadership led scholars to merge them into a new paradigm of ‘entrepreneurial leadership’. The synergy associated with ‘entrepreneurial leadership’ not only assists improving research and practice in both disciplines but it also presents novel properties that are not obviously apparent in either of the separate components (Gupta et al. 2004; Yang 2008). #p#分页标题#e#
 
Entrepreneurial leadership definition and development 创业领导力的定义与发展
 
In fact, ‘entrepreneurial leadership’ is in the very early stages of conceptual and theoretical development. Entrepreneurial leadership has been defined as a form of leadership behaviour distinctive from other types of leadership behaviours that are required for highly turbulent, challenging and competitive environments (Gupta et al. 2004). Only recently, specific competencies of entrepreneurial leaders that enable them to recognize opportunities, step-into a new venture creation and cope with the challenges and problems associated with entrepreneurial venturing have been identified (Gupta et al. 2004; Swiercz and Lydon 2002). Scholars had two main approaches to entrepreneurial leadership competencies defined as the specific abilities to perform leadership roles and tasks in entrepreneurial endeavours (Lans and Mulder 2009). First, ‘work-oriented approach’ that considers entrepreneurial leadership competencies as the requisite attributes of entrepreneurial leaders to successfully play the challenging roles and tasks of the leader in different stages of their business growth and development (Swiercz and Lydon 2002). A review of the few definitions proposed for entrepreneurial leadership indicates that most of the scholars identified three specific personal competencies for entrepreneurial leaders including proactiveness, innovativeness and risk taking (Chen 2007; Gupta et al. 2004; Kuratko 2007; Surie and Ashely 2008). Second, ‘socio-cultural and situated approach’ that explains entrepreneurial leadership development as a social process of continuous and gradual learning and ‘becoming’ that is located in particular contexts and communities (Kempster and Cope 2010). It is argued that entrepreneurial competencies and in particular entrepreneurial leadership can be learned and developed (Baron and Ensly 2006; Kempster and Cope 2010; Lans et al. 2008). In the following paragraphs each of the personal competencies of entrepreneurial leaders is explained. Then, we highlight the specific functional competencies that enable entrepreneurial leaders to successfully play the critical roles and tasks of the leader in entrepreneurial venturing. 
 
Proactiveness 积极性
 
Proactiveness is being active to create and lead the future rather than waiting to be influenced by it. It is the typical personality characteristic of entrepreneurial leaders that enables them to manage their own business (Fuller and Marler 2009) and  
450 A. Bagheri and Z.A.L. Pihie envision a successful future for it (Hannah et al. 2008). It empowers entrepreneurial leaders to anticipate future problems, recognize opportunities and identify the needs for change and improvement (Kuratko et al. 2007; Okudan and Rzasa 2006). In addition to the impacts of being proactive on entrepreneurs’ new business success and growth, it affects their creativity, perseverance to achieve the vision, and desire and intention to initiate entrepreneurial activities (Kickul and Gundry 2002; Zampetakis 2008). From a learning perspective, the proactive characteristic motivates entrepreneurs to recognize their learning needs and engage in learning activities and training programs to cope with the crises and challenges of their business management (Cope and Watts 2000; Major et al. 2006; Young and Sexton 2003). As a matter of fact, entrepreneurial leadership is a proactive response to environmental opportunities (Surie and Ashley 2008). Innovativeness Innovativeness has been defined as the tendency and ability of entrepreneurial leaders to think creatively and develop novel and useful ideas in entrepreneurial opportunity recognition, resource utilization and problem solving (Chen 2007; Gupta et al. 2004; Mattare 2008; Okudan and Rzasa 2006). Innovativeness is the attribute that differentiates entrepreneurs from those who want just to be self-employed (Kuratko 2005; Mueller and Thomas 2000; Okudan and Rzasa 2006). From Surie and Ashley’s (2008) point of view entrepreneurial leaders are creative innovators who are committed to action and value creation. Risk taking Risk taking is the willingness of entrepreneurial leaders to absorb uncertainty and take the burden of responsibility for the future (Chen 2007). Prudential and calculated risk taking is one of the common characteristics of entrepreneurial leaders, particularly, in the early stages of the entrepreneurship process (Robinson et al. 2006; Zhao et al. 2005). Furthermore, entrepreneurial leaders are characterized as having a greater propensity to take risks than managers and they need to take various risks in different stages of their venture creation and development (Mueller and Thomas 2000). In addition to personal characteristics, entrepreneurial leaders need to possess specific competencies to successfully perform the challenging tasks and roles of the leaders in entrepreneurial venturing. Concentrating on leadership competencies that entrepreneurial CEOs need to develop in different stages of their business establishment, growth and development, Swiercz and Lydon (2002) classified competencies of entrepreneurial leaders into self-competencies (endowed abilities within individuals) and functional-competencies (capabilities needed for performing various leadership tasks). The authors highlighted intellectual integrity, promoting the company rather than the individual leader, utilizing external advisors and creating a sustainable organization as self-competencies of entrepreneurial leaders and marketing, finance and human resources as the most important functional-competencies of entrepreneurial leaders. However, entrepreneurship scholars called for more investigations to identify the specific competencies of entrepreneurial leaders that enable them to lead distinctively different from other types of leaders (Gupta et al. 2004). Moreover, entrepreneurial leadership learning is a situated and  Human Resource Development International 451 relational learning process about which there is no commonly accepted theory (Kempster and Cope 2010). Through a personal development perspective and based on the challenges that entrepreneurial leaders face in organizational settings and the competencies they require to cope with the challenges, Gupta et al. (2004) developed a theoretical foundation for entrepreneurial leadership. According to the theory, entrepreneurial leaders face two interrelated challenges in the process of organizational development. The first challenge, ‘Scenario enactment’, is envisioning future and creating a scenario of innovative possibilities. ‘Cast enactment’, the second challenge, is defined as influencing and inspiring a group of competent and committed supporters capable of accomplishing the objectives of the scenario. Facing these challenges, entrepreneurial leaders play two critical roles including building commitment in the followers, and specifying limitations and should be proactive, innovative and take risks. Fundamentally, competencies needed for overcoming scenario and cast enactment challenges are interdependent since one cannot be conceived without the other. Moreover, they both evolve through a cumulative and complementary process, meaning that development in one reinforces the other. Importantly, entrepreneurial leadership competencies develop through being involved in entrepreneurial activities and facing the challenges and crises of task performances. Accordingly, entrepreneurial leaders need to develop a combination of personal and functional competencies to be able to successfully develop an entrepreneurial vision and perform the challenging tasks and roles of an entrepreneurial leader (Kuratko 2007; Okudan and Rzasa 2006; Vecchio 2003). By doing so, they need to be engaged in a dynamic process of learning, change and development (Gupta et al. 2004; Swiercz and Lydon 2002). Although there has been a tradition of looking at entrepreneurship as a learning process, a learning perspective to entrepreneurial leadership development has recently been conducted (Kempster and Cope 2010). Drawing upon entrepreneurial learning literature, this paper attempts to highlight the different learning mechanisms through which entrepreneurial leadership competencies can be developed. The following section discusses the importance and nature of entrepreneurial learning. Then, different aspects of entrepreneurial learning that construct the foundations for developing an integrated model for entrepreneurial leadership development is proposed. #p#分页标题#e#
 
Entrepreneurial learning: importance, definition, and process 创业学习:重要性、定义和过程
 
Entrepreneurial learning has recently become one of the main focuses of entrepreneurship research. This increased interest is because of the strong belief that entrepreneurial competencies and particularly entrepreneurial leadership can be learned and developed through experience and entrepreneurship education and training programs (Kempster and Cope 2010; Lans and Mulder 2009; Lans et al. 2008). Moreover, learning plays pivotal roles in the whole process of new venture creation, from developing the competencies to stepping-into a new venture creation (Erikson 2003) to recognizing opportunities and coping with the challenges and dynamics of the business world (Cope and Watts 2000; Fayolle and Gailly 2008; Harrison and Leitch 2005; Politis 2005). More importantly, entrepreneurs’ effectiveness in leading a business (managing people and resources) highly depends on their ability to continuously acquire entrepreneurial knowledge from numerous resources and different contexts and apply the knowledge to modify their behaviours  
452 A. Bagheri and Z.A.L. Pihie as well as change their business strategies (Cope 2003; Murali et al. 2009; Young and Sexton 2003). Indeed, learning has been considered as the competitive advantage and one of the vital tasks of entrepreneurs (Harrison and Leitch 2005; Kempster and Cope 2010). Young and Sexton (2003) conclude that ‘the most enduring entrepreneurs are those who ‘‘learn how to learn’’ the processes associated with acquiring knowledge’ (15). Despite the dramatic importance of entrepreneurial learning, our knowledge about the various aspects of this critical process particularly the conceptual definition and mechanisms through which individuals learn different entrepreneurial competencies is limited (Cope and Watts 2000; Cope 2003; Corbett 2005; Harrison and Leitch 2005; Pittaway and Cope 2007; Politis 2005). More importantly, there is not enough information about the ways of leadership learning in entrepreneurial contexts (Kempster and Cope 2010). Scholars have defined entrepreneurial learning through two main perspectives. First, ‘learning that occurs during the new venture creation process’ (Pittaway and Cope 2007, 212). Second, learning competencies required for stepping-into new venture creation, dealing with the challenges and crises involved in entrepreneurial venturing, and successfully leading the new venture (Lans et al. 2008). Given that entrepreneurial learning is basically an experiential process, the majority of entrepreneurial learning definitions are based on different aspects of experiential learning model (Kolb 1984) including experimentation, conceptualization, reflection and experience (Pittaway and Cope 2007). Based on the model, Politis (2005) emphasized that entrepreneurial learning is an experiential process in which knowledge develops through experiencing, reflecting, thinking and acting. Rae and Carswell (2000) looked at entrepreneurial learning as the cognitive processes of gaining and structuring knowledge as well as giving meaning to experiences. In essence, entrepreneurial learning refers to a dynamic and constant process of acquiring, assimilating, organizing and linking the new knowledge and competencies with pre-existing structures to be retrievable for use in routine and strategic actions (Cope 2005; Holcomb et al. 2009; Minniti and Bygrave 2001; Rae and Carswell 2000). This process has three main components including experience, transformation process and knowledge, and enables entrepreneurs to effectively recognize and exploit entrepreneurial opportunities and deal with problems and crises of the new business (Politis 2005). Learning that occurs through facing, overcoming and reflecting on problems and challenges of new venture creation and development is more influential in enhancing entrepreneurial competencies and success or failure of the entrepreneurial venturing (Cope and Watts 2000; Cope 2005; 2003; Fayolle and Gailly 2008; Pittaway and Cope 2007; Politis 2005). The profound impacts of learning through overcoming novel problems and critical events is because of diversity in the knowledge and competencies accumulated from novel challenges and crises compared to familiar domains (Holcomb et al. 2009). In addition to the ongoing debates on conceptualization of entrepreneurial learning, Lans et al. (2008) criticized entrepreneurship research because of lack of a comprehensive model for learning entrepreneurial competencies. Based on the above discussion and looking at learning entrepreneurial competencies from an education perspective (Lans and Mulder 2009; Lans et al. 2008) in the context of university entrepreneurship programs, the following sections examine different aspects of the entrepreneurial learning process including experience, social interaction and reflection in order to  #p#分页标题#e#
Human Resource Development International 453 build the foundations for developing a model for entrepreneurial leadership development based on an integrated approach to entrepreneurial learning. 
 
Entrepreneurial learning and experience 创业学习与体验
 
There is a strong belief in that entrepreneurial learning is an action-orientated process through which entrepreneurs experience various phases of business creation and management. In particular, entrepreneurial leadership learning occurs through an experiential process of running a new business through which entrepreneurs develop their understanding and practice of leadership in a naturalistic context (Kempster and Cope 2010). Each and every experience changes entrepreneurs’ knowledge in some area and enhances their confidence in that area (Minniti and Bygrave 2001). It is argued that ‘by gaining experience in a certain domain, a person’s accumulated knowledge will contain more concepts and become more interconnected, thereby increasing proficiency’ (Holcomb et al. 2009, 171). Experience also improves entrepreneurs’ creativity, business skills, networks and business reputation (Politis 2005). Holcomb et al. (2009) developed a model of entrepreneurial learning which categorizes experiential learning process into two types of ‘direct experiential learning’ and ‘vicarious learning’. While ‘direct experiential learning’ refers to the process of knowledge accumulation from directly experiencing various aspects of business management, ‘vicarious learning’ is the process through which entrepreneurs accumulate knowledge by observing the behaviours and actions of others and related outcomes. They further argued that both of the experiential learning processes affect knowledge acquisition and action; however, entrepreneurs tend to rely more on their own prior failure experiences rather than failures of others. Kempster (2009) also suggests that entrepreneurs’ leadership learning occur through experiences of their own actions and observing others. The authors emphasized that observational learning, which occurs through interaction with others, not only shapes entrepreneurs’ understandings of leadership but also changes their leadership practices. Accordingly, for many educators gaining theoretical knowledge about entrepreneurship is not enough for learning how to manage entrepreneurial venturing effectively, unless it is complemented with experience (Henry et al. 2005; Politis 2005). Entrepreneurship educators emphasize significant and long-lasting impacts of learning that happens through practicing various roles and tasks of an entrepreneur on developing students’ personal, functional and behavioural entrepreneurship competencies. First, experiential learning opportunities increase students’ desire and intention to become an entrepreneur (Fiet 2000; Peterman and Kennedy 2003). The programs enhance students’ self-awareness (being conscious about their entrepreneurial abilities and weaknesses) and their needs for improvement, creativity and propensity to take risks (Fuchs et al. 2008; Harris and Gibson 2008; Matlay 2006; 2005; Pittaway and Cope 2007; Smith et al. 2006). Moreover, experiential learning enhances students’ specific entrepreneurial competencies for leading their own business and successfully overcoming the inherited challenges and crises of entrepreneurial venturing (Dhliwayo 2008; Pittaway and Cope 2007; Okudan and Rzasa 2006; Smith et al. 2006). In effect, through such activities students experience failure, learn from it and thereby develop their abilities to deal with more serious challenges in the future (Fayolle and Gailly 2008). Experience also develops social skills in students, ‘skills that are hard to acquire from a non-practitioner or a  #p#分页标题#e#
454 A. Bagheri and Z.A.L. Pihie classroom situation’ (Dhliwayo 2008, 333). Finally, through experience students ‘can generate new meaning which consequently leads to change in thinking and behaviour’ (Fayolle and Gailly 2008, 580). Furthermore, experiential methods of entrepreneurship education enhance acceptance and demands of students for entrepreneurship programs and are more influential in developing their entrepreneurial competencies (Plaschka and Welsch 1990). As such, Fuchs et al. (2008) emphasized that students should be given the opportunity to gain as much practical experience as possible. Such real-life experiences usually have much more lasting effects on pupils. However, there is a wide gap in our knowledge about how such programs help students to develop their entrepreneurial leadership capabilities (Okudan and Rzasa 2006). How to combine entrepreneurship theory and practice has been one of the most critical issues in entrepreneurship education. Henry et al. (2005) stated that active and experiential methods of entrepreneurship education should not result in ignorance of theory. Fiet (2000) also advocates including theories in entrepreneurship courses to enhance students’ cognitive skills for better entrepreneurial decision making. In contrast, commentators on concentrating more on entrepreneurship theories propose the deficiencies of theory-based approaches to entrepreneurship education in developing creativity, innovativeness and practical abilities of entrepreneurship students (Dhliwayo 2008; Heinonen and Poikkijoki 2006; Tan and Ng 2006). Therefore, many educators are of the opinion that students should be provided with highly experiential and challenging learning activities which affect their entrepreneurial competencies development (Pittaway and Cope 2007; Hannon 2006; Heinonen and Poikkijoki 2006). 
 
Entrepreneurial learning and social interaction 创业学习与社会互动
 
Despite the robust body of research on the relationship between entrepreneurial learning and experience, the literature on social aspects of entrepreneurial learning process is surprisingly scarce. However, many empirical research findings indicate the necessity of social interactions in the whole process of entrepreneurial learning (Cope 2005; Man and Yu 2007; Pittaway and Cope 2007). In essence, entrepreneurial learning occurs in a complex and dynamic process of personal interaction with the environment (Cope 2003; 2005; Rae 2007; 2000) which shapes and develops the entrepreneurial perceptions, attitudes and abilities (Rae and Carswell 2000). In particular, entrepreneurial leadership capabilities develop only by being engaged in a dynamic process of interaction between personal and contextual factors (Holt et al. 2007; Kempster and Cope 2010; Kuratko 2007; Vecchio 2003). Social interactive learning enables entrepreneurs to explore opportunities and cope with the crises of new business management (Corbett 2005; Heinonen and Poikkijoki 2006; Pittaway and Cope 2007). Surie and Ashley (2008) concluded that by executing the various entrepreneurial roles and activities, entrepreneurs learn entrepreneurial leadership through social interactions and a process of socialization. Kempster (2009) emphasized that not only availability of social interactions with ‘notable people’ highly influence entrepreneurs’ leadership learning and development but also variety and diversity of social interactions significantly affect their leadership learning (Kempster 2009, 440). Concentrating on how social interactions develop students’ entrepreneurial learning, Fuchs et al. (2008) emphasized that social interactions improve students’  #p#分页标题#e#
Human Resource Development International 455 self-awareness of their weaknesses and strengths as well as their maturity in communication skills and networking. The authors further explained that social interactions help students to share and challenge their different insights and reasoning processes, discover weak points on their reasoning and the ways to improve them, correct one another, adjust their understanding on the basis of others’ understanding and, more importantly, apply the acquired knowledge and skills to solve the problems. Additionally, the knowledge gained as a result of social interactions between people who have different experiences and perspectives is in a level higher than the learning acquired by individuals (Pittaway and Cope 2007). Furthermore, the synergy between individual and collective learning makes entrepreneurial learning more in-depth and long-lasting (Man and Yu 2007; Smith et al. 2006). Such social interactive programs also provide social experiences through which students practice significant responsibilities that enhance their desire to step into entrepreneurship (Peterman and Kennedy 2003). Additionally, social interactive learning enhances creativity and innovativeness which are the core components of the whole entrepreneurship process (Ko and Butler 2007; Rae 2006). Entrepreneurship education programs provide various opportunities for students’ social interactions (Peterman and Kennedy 2003) which develop their entrepreneurial competencies in general and entrepreneurial leadership in particular (Vecchio 2003). The programs provide opportunities for interactions with lecturers and peers in groups which is critical for the entrepreneurial learning process and improves students’ affection on entrepreneurial activities as well as their perceived level of entrepreneurial competencies (Man and Yu 2007; Pittaway and Cope 2007). Furthermore, social conflicts and challenges that students experience through developing a new business idea and gaining agreement within their group play a major role in enabling them to reassess their actions and radically change their mindset and behaviour (Pittaway and Cope 2007). Therefore, ‘it seems extremely useful to have students from different backgrounds in order to enhance social learning’ in entrepreneurship education (Heinonen 2007, 319). Entrepreneurship education programs also facilitate students’ access to groups of entrepreneurial-minded people. The programs provide opportunities for students to be exposed to entrepreneurs and investors on occasions such as training, club meeting and business dealing where they have the chance to observe and learn from successful role models (Souitaris et al. 2007; Zhao et al. 2005). 
 
Entrepreneurial learning and reflection 创业学习与反思
 
While many entrepreneurship researchers defined entrepreneurial learning as a combination of experience and social interaction, many others believe that this is not enough for mastering a complex and dynamic process such as entrepreneurship (Cope 2005; 2003; Cope and Watts 2000; Pittaway and Cope 2007). For them effective entrepreneurial learning occurs only if entrepreneurs involve in a process of analyzing and interpreting experiential and theoretical knowledge in various forms of reflection (Pittaway and Cope 2007). In fact, reflective learning has been considered as the most significant learning mechanism for entrepreneurs that creates fundamental changes in their self-awareness and insights on how to manage their business effectively (Cope 2003; Cope and Watts 2000). It is through reflection that entrepreneurs learn to inquire into meaning of events in various occasions such as their past experiences and social interactions.  #p#分页标题#e#
456 A. Bagheri and Z.A.L. Pihie Furthermore, reflection enables entrepreneurs to not only assimilate, reframe and restructure their understanding and acquired knowledge from different events but also apply the learning outcomes to recognize the requisite personal skills and the actions that need to be taken in order to predict and/or prevent potential crises and challenges of their business management (Cope 2003; Cope and Watts 2000; Holcomb et al. 2009). Holcomb et al. (2009) noted that successive assimilation of accumulated knowledge ‘more tightly couples underlying knowledge, deepens understanding, and facilitates future learning and action’ (171). This point emphasizes the role of reflection for bringing together and consolidating the disparate knowledge acquired from various contexts specifically experiences and social interactions (Pittaway and Cope 2007). More importantly, reflective learning demonstrates the critical role of individuals to successfully assimilate and organize the newly acquired knowledge and necessitates developing the capabilities of entrepreneurs to effectively gain a higher level of knowledge by exploring the relationships of the fragmented information accumulated from various resources (Holcomb et al. 2009). Cope (2005) argued that through reflection on the previous problems and challenges entrepreneurs develop a generative learning which is both retrospective (based on previous experiences) and prospective (transferring the knowledge for future decision making), adaptive and proactive. In Young and Sexton’s (2003) point of view entrepreneurs engage in learning activities because of their reactive and proactive reflection on opportunities or problems that hinder the growth and development of their businesses. Therefore, a ‘proactive reflection’ on past events enables entrepreneurs to overcome future crises and challenges involved in their business management. It is through the process of reactive and proactive reflection that entrepreneurs ‘learn how to learn’ more effectively. However, for many entrepreneurs learning through reflection is very difficult because they are not used to reflect on their actions (Cope and Watts 2000). In order to successfully lead entrepreneurial endeavours, therefore, entrepreneurial leaders need to develop their abilities to learn from reflection. Developing entrepreneurial abilities of students through reflective learning has only recently emerged in entrepreneurship education programs. However, inadequacy of traditional entrepreneurship education approaches in facilitating proactive reflection and developing students’ entrepreneurial competencies has been recognized by scholars. Concentrating on this neglected aspect of entrepreneurship education, Pittaway and Cope (2007) developed a program called ‘a new venture planning’. The program provides various opportunities for students to reflect on their entrepreneurial learning and thereby unify and strengthen their learning outcomes from different entrepreneurial activities. However, to date there is no comprehensive model for entrepreneurial competencies learning that integrates various aspects of entrepreneurial learning in order to develop the specific competencies in prospective entrepreneurs that enable them to successfully play critical roles and tasks of an entrepreneur (Lans et al. 2008). A proposed model for entrepreneurial leadership development based on an integrated approach to entrepreneurial learning One of the main concerns of this conceptual paper was to develop a model of entrepreneurial leadership learning and development for which no other model has  #p#分页标题#e#
Human Resource Development International 457 been developed yet. Drawing upon the conceptual and theoretical foundations of entrepreneurial leadership and a dynamic and integrated approach to entrepreneurial learning (Lans and Mulder 2009), a model for entrepreneurial leadership competencies development is proposed. The model represents entrepreneurial leadership development as a process of interaction and incorporation of different forms of entrepreneurial learning including experience, observation, social interaction and reflection (see Figure 1). According to the model, active involvement in different types of entrepreneurial learning develops entrepreneurial leadership competencies including competencies required for ‘Scenario enactment’ namely proactivess, innovativeness and risk taking as well as ‘Cast enactment’ which are commitment building and specifying limitations (Gupta et al. 2004; Swiercz and Lydon 2002). The model is based on a comprehensive approach to entrepreneurial leadership competencies indicating that the competencies can be learned and developed and are interrelated (Baron and Ensly 2006; Lans and Mulder 2009). On the other hand, performing various leadership tasks and roles in entrepreneurial contexts improves entrepreneurs’ understanding and competence of leadership in relation to others and their business environment (Kempster and Cope 2010). Leadership practices enhance learning entrepreneurial competencies through constantly acquiring new behaviours, developing new ways of thinking and learning ‘how to learn’ from various resources (Cope and Watts 2000).The purpose for employing an integrated approach to entrepreneurial leadership competencies and entrepreneurial learning is threefold: first, to accommodate the complexities and multi-faceted nature of entrepreneurial leadership learning and development (Cogliser and Brigham 2004; Kempster and Cope 2010); second, to include both generic abilities and specific leadership competencies of entrepreneurial leaders (Lans and Mulder 2009) and contain interdependent nature of entrepreneurial leadership competencies (Gupta et al. 2004; Lans et al. 2008); third, to appreciate the reinforcing and strengthening characteristic of entrepreneurial learning components which have significant influences on developing entrepreneurial leadership competencies (Pittaway and Cope 2007). Based on the model, entrepreneurial leadership competencies can be learned and developed through a process of experiencing various roles and tasks of the leader in entrepreneurial endeavours (Gupta et al. 2004; Kempster and Cope, 2010), social interactions with entrepreneurial-minded people (Kempster and Cope 2010; Surie and Ashely 2008), observing real leadership Figure 1. An integrated model for entrepreneurial leadership development based on entrepreneurial learning.  
458 A. Bagheri and Z.A.L. Pihie practices in entrepreneurial contexts (Holcomb et al. 2009; Kempster 2009) and reflecting on leadership performances and entrepreneurial learning outcomes (Cope 2003; 2005; Cope and Watts 2000; Lans et al. 2008; Pittaway and Cope 2007). Accordingly, entrepreneurship educators may need to provide a balanced opportunity for students in all forms of entrepreneurial leadership learning through a comprehensive and integrated approach to entrepreneurship education if they are to increase the number and competencies of future entrepreneurial leaders. To do so, entrepreneurship educators can provide students with project-based and real life problem solving learning opportunities (Okudan and Rzasa 2006) where they can experience the roles of an entrepreneurial leader and the challenges associated with entrepreneurial venturing, learn from various social interactions, and reflect on their performances and learning outcomes (Pittaway and Cope 2007). Entrepreneurship educators also need to focus more on observational learning, the recently emerging aspect of entrepreneurial leadership learning and development (Holcomb et al. 2009; Kempster 2009). In particular, students should be provided with reflective learning opportunities that enable them to make the best use of acquired knowledge from experience, observation and social interaction. However, reflective learning is the most neglected aspect of entrepreneurial learning in entrepreneurship education which deserves more attention (Cope and Watts 2000). #p#分页标题#e#
 
Conclusion and implications of the proposed model 结论和所提出的模型的影响
 
The main purpose of the current article was to develop a model for entrepreneurial leadership development through reviewing and synthesising the current knowledge on entrepreneurial leadership and entrepreneurial learning as a complex and multilevel process (Kempster and Cope 2010). Through integrating different aspects of entrepreneurial learning, this model develops a dynamic perspective on the process of entrepreneurial learning and how it links to entrepreneurial leadership development. In addition, it describes the influences of different entrepreneurial learning aspects in developing entrepreneurial leadership competencies. According to the model, entrepreneurial leadership development is a dynamic process of learning from experience, observation, and social interaction and transforming the acquired knowledge through a process of reflection to recognize entrepreneurial opportunities as well as creating novel solutions for challenges and crises of leading entrepreneurial ventures. This integrated learning approach to entrepreneurial leadership development has an influential impact on shaping the mindset and behaviour of entrepreneurial leaders particularly, when they are encountered with new opportunities and challenges. It also indicates that all of these learning elements are critical in learning entrepreneurial leadership (Cogliser and Brigham 2004; Kempster and Cope 2010). In addition, it focuses on various sources through which individuals can acquire entrepreneurial knowledge and competencies and reinforcing effects of each learning source in others which is mostly overlooked in entrepreneurial learning (Holcomb et al. 2009). Furthermore, the model emphasizes on the role of individuals in managing and transforming the accumulated knowledge to develop entrepreneurial leadership competencies through considering reflection as one of the core components of entrepreneurial leadership development. Through a comprehensive approach to entrepreneurial leadership learning, the proposed model can be applied in research and practice development for  Human Resource Development International 459 entrepreneurs as well as entrepreneurial leaders in organizational settings, though it presents entrepreneurial leadership development mostly based on entrepreneurial learning opportunities provided by university entrepreneurship education programs. Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial leaders in established organizations may consider all these aspects of learning as influential in their entrepreneurial leadership development and enhance their entrepreneurial leadership competencies through active involvement in entrepreneurship education (Kempster and Cope 2010). Specifically, they may find developing their capabilities of learning through experience, social interaction and particularly observation and reflection as insightful in their entrepreneurial leadership development and increase the probability of their success in leading entrepreneurial activities. More importantly, the model may help entrepreneurial leaders to identify the neglected aspects of their learning that hinders their leadership learning (Kempster 2009). Entrepreneurship educators may also develop entrepreneurial leadership competencies of university students as prospective entrepreneurial leaders by employing a comprehensive and integrated approach to designing entrepreneurship education and training programs. The programs should engage students in various entrepreneurial leadership learning opportunities in which they acquire the knowledge and competencies for successfully leading entrepreneurial endeavours. Specifically, entrepreneurship educators can design specific entrepreneurial leadership programs and competence-based curricula based on each and every aspect of entrepreneurial leadership learning. In conclusion, if based on the model, entrepreneurial leadership development happens through a dynamic mechanism of experience, observation, social interaction, and reflection and more importance should be placed on developing the abilities of entrepreneurial leaders in learning from a variety of learning opportunities. However, providing students with a balance of all these aspects of entrepreneurial leadership learning is another challenge that entrepreneurship educators need to face. Currently, there exist some elements of entrepreneurial learning in entrepreneurship education and training programs that may develop basic entrepreneurial leadership in students (Okudan and Rzasa 2006), while offering a combination of all different aspects of entrepreneurial leadership learning seems to more effectively develop the specific competencies that future entrepreneurial leaders require to successfully lead entrepreneurial venturing. Moreover, entrepreneurship students can consider each of the different aspects of entrepreneurial leadership learning as influential in learning competencies required for leading their future entrepreneurial venturing and engage in different entrepreneurial learning opportunities to develop their entrepreneurial leadership competencies. The proposed model for entrepreneurial leadership learning and development has several implications for entrepreneurship researchers. First, the model provides a research stepping stone for investigating entrepreneurial leadership learning and development. Moreover, entrepreneurship researchers may include all aspects of entrepreneurial learning in examining entrepreneurial leadership development. Furthermore, the model provides a better understanding of entrepreneurial leadership learning and can be the first step in developing a theory for entrepreneurial leadership development. Finally, entrepreneurship researchers may consider different aspects of entrepreneurial leadership development in evaluating the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education programs in developing students’ competencies of leading entrepreneurial activities.  #p#分页标题#e#
460 A. Bagheri and Z.A.L. Pihie Although the model may have significant implications for entrepreneurial leadership practice, education and research, it needs empirical evidence to support its reliability and applicability in developing entrepreneurial leadership competencies of university students, current entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial leaders in organizations. The effectiveness of the model in developing entrepreneurial leadership competencies also needs to be tested in different contexts and with indigenous data to examine if entrepreneurial leadership development is a contextual and culturally dependent concept. In particular, the model needs to be examined for students with different cultural, educational and ethnic backgrounds to determine if demographic factors affect the development of the entrepreneurial leadership competencies of students. Entrepreneurship researchers may also investigate the possibilities and outcomes of integrating different processes of entrepreneurial learning in developing entrepreneurial leadership capabilities and if the combination of different entrepreneurial learning can develop students’ specific entrepreneurial leadership competencies. Moreover, future researches can examine how this variety of learning opportunities helps students to develop their entrepreneurial leadership competencies and how to provide a combination of all these aspects of entrepreneurial leadership leaning and development. Research can also be undertaken to evaluate which aspect of entrepreneurial leadership learning has more influential impacts on developing students’ entrepreneurial leadership competencies, if entrepreneurial leadership learning through these mechanisms develop students’ specific competencies of entrepreneurial leadership, and which entrepreneurial leadership competencies can be learned and developed through each of these entrepreneurial learning opportunities (Gupta et al. 2004). 
 
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