英国论文网:中英跨文化知识管理与交流-Feature UK–China links-Knowledge Transfer

时间:2011-09-01 10:00:10 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien


Feature UK – China links Knowledge Transfer between the UK and China
Cable & Wireless Virtual Academy President, Professor David Mellor OBE, explores the practical difficulties in the sharing ofknowledge across continents and cultures.
The Bulletin August 2003 page 22
I first visited China in 1995 as part of a delegation from Coventry Council, UK. The purpose of the visit was to explore with the Lord Mayor how Coventry might be able to assist its
partner city in China, Jinan, with development. Jinan is in Shandong
Province and is focussed on manufacturing. It has a population of approximately 11 million.On arrival in China in 1995 in thecapital city, Beijing, there were a smallnumber of English signs. Howeververy few people were prepared toconverse in English and all business discussions were handled via interpreters.
As part of my initial introduction toChina I found myself attending severalformal banquets and visiting severalfactories. The highlight for me was aformal meeting with the Director ofJinan Telecommunications Bureau.
Being unable to converse in Chinese Irelied heavily on the interpreter whohas since become a long-standingfriend. Shu Hui Sun has proved to be my direct access to the understandingof the education needs of the telecommunications sector in China. Identifying the challenge
In 1997 I was given a detailed tour ofthe Telecommunications Bureauaccompanied by Shu Hui Sun and itwas at this time that I learned why thetechnical competence was so highwhilst business knowledge was considerably lacking and in somecases non-existent. Technical trainingis the responsibility of China Telecom who operate 100 training schools, sixuniversities and a research centre.However human development is the responsibility of the local mayorwhose budget rarely stretches beyond a four-week study period for each individual. With seven academic centres focussing on telecommunications engineering it quickly became apparent that China was probably more advanced than the UK in this particular area whereasmanagement education was an area where we could be of help.
In 1998 the Premier of China paid astate visit to the UK and a member ofhis delegation was President LinJintong of Beijing University of Postsand Telecommunications (BUPT). AsChairman of the United Kingdom
Telecommunications Academy(UKTA), I was invited to present howthe UK could constructively help#p#分页标题#e#
BUPT with programme development.My previous three years’ researchenabled me to suggest that it wasn’t
technical skills that were needed inChina but a broad businessawareness of how the sector ischanging. The UKTA proposal wasextremely well received and wassubsequently implemented in China.
I first presented a lecture in 1999 to agroup of 70 professors at BUPT anddespite asking how many understoodEnglish only two replies werereceived. The body language of thegroup told me they did not follow thespoken word. Yet the ability of theChinese people to read, retain andwrite in English is of a particularlyhigh standard. The issue ismainlyperfection: the Chinese haveextremely high standards and do notlike to make mistakes. The initiallecture was in an extremelydepressing room with only ablackboard and chalk. Moreover thedesks were at least 50 years old.
I reviewed my experience after thefirst lecture with President Lin Jintong
and it was agreed that I would delivertwo lectures a year to the MBA GroupProfessor David Mellor of BUPT and that all participantsattending my lectures would have toattain an agreed level of English
Literacy based on IELTS.In November 2002 I delivered a
lecture with almost 100 delegatespresent and the participation levelwas of an exceptional standard withwell-formulated questions. Moreover,this time the facilities of the lecturetheatre were of a very high standard.
As a Visiting Professor to BUPT Ihave now been invited to develop a30 hour module on
telecommunications regulation as partof the InternationalTelecommunications Union Centre of
Excellence Programme.The key to building relationships in
China is to demonstrate you havesomething measurable to offer.
Arriving as a new friend, you willsteadily become an old friend andyour knowledge will be valued.
Patience is the key!Supporting programmes
Having identified that managementskills were in short supply, a numberof UKTA Management Programmeshave been delivered in China inseveral provinces. However theindividuals receiving the knowledgeneed to be rewarded academically fortheir efforts.
In conjunction with the Foreign andCommonwealth Office, Cable &
Wireless have supported a considerablenumber of Chevening Scholars onMaster’s Degree Programmes atvarious universities. The MScprogramme at Coventry has been wellreceived by the Chinese since it has apractical application of the various management skills they require and theconsiderable benefit of experiencesfrom other parts of the world is a keyingredient in the programme.
Although the Cable & Wireless Virtual
Academy has developed a number ofrelevant e-education programmes atmaster’s degree Level, the Chineseare not yet ready to study in Englishonline. However I predict that this willbecome a prominent methodologyused in China within five years.New learning styles
In 2002 I was invited by South WestUniversity for Nationalities (SWUN) inChengdu to comment as to how elearning#p#分页标题#e#
might assist with their
teaching challenges. The University isendeavouring to educate the 54minority nationalities of China - some
300,000,000 people.Professor Chen Yu Ping is thePresident of SWUN and together weare exploring learning styles.
The conventional style of teaching in
China is that approximately 100
students per class sit behind desksand are told by the professor whatthey should know.
However the social skills of theChinese are extremely high. Duringan early visit to Jinan, I was hostedfor lunch by the Assistant Directorwho had given no indication duringthe business meeting of his ability tospeak in English. I was one of elevenat lunch and the Assistant Directorthen declared that everyone shouldask questions in English. As the drink
flowed and food was consumedeveryone was encouraged and helpedto converse in English and thestandard was much higher than I hadanticipated during the businessdiscussions.
To see how these social skills can beharnessed for learning, ProfessorChen and I are planning to attempt torun a weekend workshop on avoluntary basis using round tablesand flip charts where the students doall the work and we merely facilitate.
The proposed topic is ‘What is
The culture of the Chinese people is
very different from the UK and they
demonstrate a high regard for their
superiors. The barriers to knowledge
are being broken down. Considerable
satisfaction can and will be gained by
those who share their ideas.
Presidents Lin and Chen are
extremely grateful for the help their
respective Universities receive from
the UK and are both influential within
the education and political structures
of China. Without their support I
would have been unable to achieve
the valuable links I have established
between UK and Chinese
communications sectors.
The Bulletin August 2003 page 23
Professor Mellor with Michael Hilton, FCO, President Lin Jintong, and students
‘The key to building
relationships in China is to
demonstrate you have
something measurable to offer.
Arriving as a new friend, you
will steadily become an old
friend and your knowledge will
be valued. Patience is the key!’
Advertising update
The Changing Face of Recruitment
Piers Pennington, Head of ACU’s Advertising and Recruitment Services, explores#p#分页标题#e#
the changing nature of recruitment advertising for higher education
The Bulletin August 2003 page 24
Fifteen years ago, placing an
advertisement for academic vacancies
in the press was a straightforward
procedure. All you had to do was to
send the typewritten copy to your
advertising agency; they might by then
have begun to expect word-processed
text from their more technologically
advanced clients but would still not be
surprised to receive hand-written scrawl
from others. The agency would then
pass the advertisement on to the
relevant journals, usually by mail or
messenger, having processed it as an
order but otherwise unchecked and
unchanged, and would pocket its
sizeable commission.
Each journal would then set the text,
normally ‘semi-display’, which meant a
small heading and a block of uniform
print alongside several dozen nearly
identical advertisements, and the client
would several weeks later receive a
cutting revealing the laughable misprints
and transpositions of phone numbers
which explained why nobody had
responded to the invitation to apply.
True, a few academics might be
tempted by the requirement to
‘simulate’ rather than ‘stimulate’
research activity but would no doubt be
put off by having to do so in the ‘faulty’
laboratories instead of those provided
by the faculty.
Image awareness
This picture changed quite rapidly.
Universities began to appreciate the
importance of a corporate image and
realised that recruitment advertising
offered a useful means of presenting it.
At first this meant little more than the
addition of the university logo to the
copy. This offered further opportunities
for typesetters to subvert the desired
message; the logo of one distinguished
Asian university depicted a figure
standing at a lectern which, turned
sideways, was transformed into an oldfashioned
motor-horn with
a squeezable
rubber bulb.
helped to
advertisers to
take control of
the process
and switch to
advertising, so
that camera
ready copy
was prepared by the agency rather
than the journal and checked by the
client before appearing in print.
This transformation was aided by the
willingness of the media, spurred on by
increasing competition, to offer volume
discounts, particularly to consortia of
advertisers, and of the advertising
agencies to begin to share with clients
some of the commission they received.
So while advertisements tended to be
larger, the additional expense was not
as great as it might have been, and the#p#分页标题#e#
end product was better designed and in
the clients’ control. Thus ACU members
using our own advertising services
began to benefit not only from the
improved appearance of their
advertisements but also from
substantial discounts amounting to
around £60,000 per year.
But while technological developments
were transforming press advertising,
they were at the same time threatening
it as the World Wide Web began to
flourish. In its early ideological days
True, a few academics might
be tempted by the
requirement to ‘simulate’
rather than ‘stimulate’
research activity but would
no doubt be put off by
having to do so in the ‘faulty’
laboratories instead of those
provided by the faculty.
The Bulletin August 2003 page 25
when the internet was a vehicle for
sharing information, rather than a huge
virtual shopping mall, it was not
unusual for universities to place
recruitment advertisements on their
own sites. Most journals also launched
websites that carried the same
advertisements as their printed
versions at no extra charge.
ACU’s advertising and recruitment
ACU responded by launching its
innovative International Noticeboard
service which offered (and continues to
offer) a unique combination of printed
and electronic coverage (including
websites, the Guardian Weekly journal
and our own printed vacancies bulletin)
for a small fixed charge (currently £185).
In the UK the launch of the
www.jobs.ac.uk website in January
1998 provided direct competition to the
educational press by providing a format
which gathered together recruitment
advertisements from a rapidly
expanding number of universities on a
single site. Thus it became much
cheaper to advertise on this website
than in the traditional media. The site
also became an integral part of the
International Noticeboard service
offering ACU members access to a
wide range of staff actively seeking
academic posts while providing the
new site with an international
dimension to broaden its appeal.
The future of recruitment advertising
While few institutions have yet been
tempted to advertise exclusively online,
there has been a noticeable decline
recently in the volume of press
advertising placed by universities. In
many ways it is easier for potential
applicants to obtain further information
from website advertising, where a
couple of clicks on the mouse can bring
up full details on the job, the location
and perhaps even an on-line
application form to complete. If
candidates register their interest with
ACU Advertising Services, details of#p#分页标题#e#
relevant vacancies can be emailed to
them automatically; and while there is
an argument that many applicants still
prefer to browse through pages of
vacancies in print at their leisure or on
their journey to and from work, the
rapid advances in internet access via
handhelds and mobile phones are
making online advertising ever more
attractive and cost-effective.
Educational publications have so far
been reluctant to separate their print
and website advertising, with income
from the latter relying on additional
features such as university profiles and
‘job of the week’ promotions which offer
additional prominence to
advertisements. It may well be that this
will soon change, and the traditional
media will seek to compete directly with
‘website only’ advertisers by offering
more cost-effective online advertising of
their own.
Piers Pennington is Chair
of the University
Advertising Consortium
and has worked for ACU’s
advertising and recruitment
services for more than
fifteen years.
University Post Ref.
Botswana SL Educational Foundations W50890
(Research, Design, Statistics)
Botswana SL/L Educational Foundations W50891
(Gender Education & Development)
Botswana P/AP Educational Foundations W5089
Botswana SL Educational Foundations (Psychology) W5089
Botswana SL Primary Education W50894
Botswana SL/L Environmental Science (Tourism) W5089
Botswana SL/L Environmental Science (Management/Economics) W508
Botswana SL Economics W50897
Rhodes (South Africa) SL/L English W50904
West Indies (Trinidad) L English Language Foundation Courses W509
West Indies (Trinidad) L/AL History W50902
Auckland SL/L Law W50905
Otago (Dunedin) SL/L Physics W50898
Victoria (Wellington) SL/L (Organic) Chemistry W50903
Malaya P Geography (Physical/Human) W50907
Malaya AP Social & Preventive Medicine W50908
Malaya L Medicine (Primary Care/Anatomy) W50909
Malaya L Education (Mathematics/Chemistry) W50910
Malaya L Applied Economics W50911
National Univ. Singapore Dean, NUS Business School W508
Oxford P Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery W50906
Abbreviations: P - Professor; AP - Associate Professor; SL - Senior Lecturer; L - Lecturer;
AL - Assistant Lecturer.
For further details of any of the above staff vacancies please contact ACU Advertising,
36 Gordon Square, London WC1H 0PF, UK (internat. tel. +44 (0)20 7380 6706
[UK office hours]; fax +44 (0)20 7380 6776; e-mail: adverts@acu.ac.uk),
quoting reference number of post(s).
For full details and a wide range of information on employment opportunities in
Commonwealth universities visit our website http://www.acu.ac.uk/adverts#p#分页标题#e#
Want to continue teaching - and experience a new country - after you retire?
Visit http://www.acu.ac.uk/adverts/rad
Promoting educational co-operation throughout the Commonwealth
ACCOUNT ADMIN (NB Final - Exec/Dir)
Checked by: Time: ___________
Client Initials: Time: ___________
APPROVED Number of PMTs\Time: ___________
Paper: Guardian Weekly
Classification: Appts
Date: Thursday 10 July 2003
Size: 150 x 122 ( 15 x 3 )
SCC: £ 28.50
Media Cost: £ 1282.50 less discount = 897.75
Production: £ 0
Client Ref: ACU/295 - Piers Pennington
Filed: L:\clients\UAC\ACU\ACU\03 Jul\ACU-295
Placing an advertisement with ACU’s services
ACU Advertising provides
cost-effective recruitment
solutions for the international
higher education sector,
from print advertising to
web-based services.
Details of ACU’s services
can be found at
www.acu.ac.uk/adverts or
by emailing
Marshall Scholars for the Kigali Public
Library (MSKPL), a group of young
American students studying in England,
has joined with the American Friends of
the Kigali Public Library (AFKPL) and
the Rotary Club of Kigali-Virunga to
build the first public library in Rwanda.
With more than a million dollars in
pledged funds, the Kigali Public Library
campaign is nearing its goal of enabling
all Rwandans to access knowledge
freely and therefore to gain the tools to
build a democratic society.
The Kigali Public Library campaign has
received strong support from both the
Rwandan community, including
Rwandan President Paul Kagame, and
the international community. The
Government of Rwanda has donated a
centrally located plot of land in Kigali,
Rwanda’s capital, and promised
US$500,000 to support the effort.
Foreign governments, international
institutions, multinational corporations,
non-governmental organisations, and
individual donors have offered their
generous support. The European
Union, PEN International, Dian Fossey
Gorilla Fund International, the Boeing
Company, Rotary Clubs on three
continents, and the Governments of
Canada and Switzerland are among
the contributors.
Through the establishment of this library,
a sanctuary for knowledge and a forum
for the free exchange of ideas, it is our
hope that the tools people used to kill
their neighbours in the brutal genocide
of 1994, will be replaced with the tools to
help rebuild Rwandan society.#p#分页标题#e#
Successful completion of this
monumental effort will mark a watershed
in Rwanda’s history, finally providing
unfettered access to a treasure trove of
knowledge that has so far been
unavailable to a population of over eight
million people. The library will also be a
monument to serve as a permanent
reminder to all Rwandans and the rest
of the world that the atrocities committed
in 1994 will never be forgotten.
MSKPL emerged from the desire of the
2002 class of Marshall Scholars to live
up to the spirit of post-conflict
reconstruction that underlies their
prestigious fellowship. Created by the
British Government as an act of
gratitude for the post-World War II
European Recovery Program, the socalled
‘Marshall Plan’, the scholarships
annually enable 40 of America’s most
promising young scholars to pursue at
least two years of postgraduate study
in the UK.
It was important to us that we not only
receive this generous award graciously,
but that we give something back in
return. Marshall Scholars are chosen
in part for their commitment to George
Marshall’s ideals. We seek to
demonstrate this commitment not only
with words, but also with action.
Rwandan Prime Minister Bernard
Makuza placed the cornerstone of the
new library on 11 May 2001, and
construction began in October 2001.
We plan to open Rwanda’s first public
library in 2005.
The Bulletin August 2003 page 26
International Volunteering
American Students Launch ‘Marshall Plan’ for
Rwanda’s First Public Library
By Lauren Baer and Zachary Kaufman, Marshall Scholars
Marshall Scholarships finance young
Americans of high ability to study for a
degree in the UK. The scheme is
funded by the Foreign &
Commonwealth Office and
administered by the Marshall Aid
Commeroration Commission in the UK,
for which the ACU provides the
For further details, see
Zachary with Raj Rajendran and Edson Mpyisi,
of the Rotary Club of Kigali-Virunga, at the site.
For more information about the
Kigali Public Library, please visit
our website at
To make a donation contact Zachary
Kaufman at zachary.kaufman
Or telephone: +44 (0) 7787-150-158.
The Bulletin August 2003 page 27
National Academic Recognition Centres
Helen Ward explains NARIC’s work, while ACU Librarian Nick Mulhern identifies comparable
initiatives across the world
ACU Briefing
International qualification recognition
The UK National Academic Recognition
Information Centre (NARIC) is contracted#p#分页标题#e#
by the Department for Education and
Skills to provide comparability information
on the UK level of overseas
qualifications. ACU and UK NARIC have
recently agreed to work together to
provide further support and information
to their respective members.
The UK NARIC is a member of the
network of NARICs throughout the
European Union, and a wider
operation of a European Network of
Information Centres (ENICs) across
Europe, Australia, Canada, New
Zealand and USA. The network is
coordinated by the Directorate
General of Education and Culture of
the European Commission and the
Council of Europe. Their work also
falls within the framework of
to other regional offices worldwide.
As well as working closely with the
NARIC/ENIC network and other key
partners across the world, the UK
NARIC services are accepted by the
many universities, government bodies,
professional bodies, employers and
other organisations who are members
in the UK and overseas.
UK NARIC membership provides:
• Year-long access to the international
database – containing over 180
country files and comparability
statements for 2000+ overseas
• Updates three times a year with new
features, qualification and country
• Access to the enquiry team to help with
more complex qualification queries
• Membership rates for specialist
training and research
• One free entrance to the UK NARIC
Annual Conference in November
For further information or the free
quarterly newsletter please e-mail
membership@naric.org.uk or visit
The NARIC (National Academic
Recognition Information Centre) network
was a European Commission initiative,
established in 1984, to encourage better
recognition of qualifications in Europe,
and thus further student mobility.
A comparable network, as mentioned
above is ENIC (European Network of
Information Centres) (Details are
accessible at: www.enic-naric.net).
What organisations exist elsewhere?
Australia: The National Office of
Overseas Skills Recognition (NOOSR)
aims to ‘help the overseas-trained to work
and study in Australia by providing
information, advice and assistance in
relation to the recognition of overseas
qualifications and skills’, and to
encourage improved international
arrangements for such recognition. To
promote this, it issues a series of ‘Country
Education Profiles’ which summarise the
education systems of some 80 countries
and detail the comparability of overseas
qualifications to Australia
Canada: The Canadian Information
Centre for International Credentials
(CICIC). Likewise, it ‘collects, organises,
and distributes information’ as well as
being ‘a national clearing house and
referral service to support the recognition
and portability of Canadian and
international educational and occupational
qualifications’ (www.cicic.ca).
US: NAFSA: Association of International
Educators promotes educational
exchange to and from the US. Many of its
members work as international student
advisers and as a network it circulates
information on overseas institutions and
qualifications (www.nafsa.org).
UNESCO has been a significant
coordinating agency in the recognition of
international qualifications, influential both
in its support for a series of conventions
and agreements, and its publications. A
‘World Directory of National Information
Centre for Academic Recognition and
Mobility’ was first prepared and published
by UNESCO in 1995, with a revised
edition information being issued in 1998.
(It remains available online, though some
of the information has been superseded.)
英国论文网提供中英跨文化知识管理与交流论文,知识管理论文范文留学生知识管理论文International Qualifications Comparability


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