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镀金时代:一九一五年巴拿马太平洋国际博览会(英文论文)

时间:2015-08-31 17:04来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
镀金时代:一九一五年巴拿马太平洋国际博览会
 
镀金时代是一个巨大的财富,奢侈,和腐败的时期。南北战争的后果就是孕育了“浪费,挥霍,投机和移植”(贝利513)。存在着不法股市的操控,有太多的法官和立法者将他们的权利出租(贝利14)。今年是十九世纪的最后一个季度,由于技术的发展被称作发明的时代,这种大规模的生产也导致了经济以惊人的速度增长。在镀金时代的峰值迎来了博览会,一九一五年巴拿马太平洋国际博览会的奢侈也显示了镀金时代给美国人民生活带来的巨大影响。
 
博览会开始的时间段表现出来奢侈的常态,为了向巴拿马运河表示敬意,旧金山于1915年至1916年举办了世界博览会。并花了大量的资金为展会做准备,在一九一零年的群众大会,由参与者向博览会进行了四百万美元的认捐(切尼和易塞尔167)。
 
The Gilded Age: Panama Pacific International Exposition of 1915 
 
The Gilded Age was a time of great wealth, extravagance, and corruption. The Civil War and its aftermath bred "waste, extravagance, speculation, and graft." (Bailey 513) There were unscrupulous stock-market manipulators, and too many judges and legislators put their power up for hire (Bailey 14).  This last quarter of the 19th century is often called the age of invention because of the technological advances made. This led to mass production, which caused the economy to grow at a tremendous rate . The Exposition came at the peak of the Gilded Age, and the extravagance of the Panama Pacific International Exposition of 1915 showed the tremendous effects of the Gilded Age in the lives of the American people. 
 
The beginning of the Exposition exhibited the normality of extravagance of the time period. San Francisco hosted the Exposition in 1915-1916 in honor of the completion of the Panama Canal (Rydell 230), and large amounts of money were spent on preparations for the Exposition. At a mass meeting in 1910, "four million dollars were pledged by the participants towards the Exposition." (Cherney and Issel 167). Two more mass meetings and door-to-door solicitation brought the total amount to over six million dollars, andproduced a resolution from the city to endorse five million dollars (Cherney and Issel 167). The buildings and exhibitions of the Exposition cost an enormous amount of money and space. "A city hall, a library, an opera house, an auditorium, and a state house were built for the Exposition." (Cherney and Issel 171). Fifty million dollars were spent on the construction of the different buildings, and fifty million more in the exhibitions (Panama-Pacific International Exposition: San Francisco, 1915). The palaces spanned over six hundred and twenty-five acres, with sixty-five acres of amusement concessions (Panama-Pacific International Exposition: San Francisco, 1915). On the opening day of the Exposition, everyone was invited to walk down Van Ness Avenue to the Exposition grounds, led by the mayor (Cherney and Issel 169). The Catholic bishop, a leading rabbi, and the Episcopalian bishop all offered prayer, and Governor Johnson, Mayor Wolf, and various other people made short speeches (Cherney and Issel 169). President Woodrow Wilson in Washington used a wireless to activate the machinery of the Exposition grounds, and the Exposition officially opened (Cherney and Issel 169). (责任编辑:BUG)


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