返回首页

英国paper写作中的INTRODUCTION参考内容:管理的基本实践和活动指南

时间:2017-01-01 23:40:12 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
管理的基本实践和活动指南
A guide to the basic practices and activities of management
 
本章对印度及全球管理教育的基本介绍,也给出了一个简短的场景在印度管理教育的新趋势。本章还提到了管理教育的变化,经过一段时间的管理教育系统发生的历史。并简要介绍了管理技巧。
管理-在其最简单的理解形式,是关于处理的东西,它是一种能力,了解需求,使他们能够有效和高效地运作。人民的需求增加了。由于工业革命,休闲阶层的规模增加了,这增加了人们对奢侈和舒适的需求.。
 
INTRODUCTION 简介
 
This chapter deals with a basic introduction about management education in India and World wide .It also gives a brief scenario of recent trends in management education in India .This chapter also mentions the history of Management education and changes that have taken place over a period of time in management education system. It also gives brief account of managerial skills.
 
Management –In its simplest form of understanding, is about handling things .It is an ability to comprehend the needs, enable them to function effectively and efficiently. The needs of the people increased grew. The leisure class has increased in size as a result of industrial revolution and this stepped up the demand for luxury and comfort. Initially, industry used the resources in the near vicinity and as they got exhausted, the inputs were to be fetched from far. This needed transportation, Coordination and cost control. New skills were required and they were to be matched up with the technological revolution. Humans, material, need of people such as transport –on land, sea and later in the air , health , weapon making ,mining ,under water and space explorations, communications etc have placed a heavy demand on the resources . It was a big challenge to develop an efficient industrial production and supply system to reach the customers. A dire need was felt to plan, organize, coordinate, and control the logistics. Thus management the field of education in the late 19th Century. This is all about planning. coordinating , organizing and controlling- managing the resources for a specified objective.
 
Conceptual framework of Managerial skills: 管理技能的概念框架:
 
Management skills –Management need a diversity of skills because of complexity of jobs .These involve conceptual skills which involve planning and thinking .Managers require ability to see the organization as a whole and relationship of its various parts. Managers are responsible for organizing and controlling people. The ability to work with people is an essential skill for a manager .Technical skills is the understanding of proficiency in the performance of specific task ,whether they are concerned with product engineering ,marketing or finance. These skills include specialized knowledge, analytical ability and competence in process and procedures applied to solving problems .These skills are important for junior and middle managers than for senior management where human and conceptual skills are more important.#p#分页标题#e#
 
About managerial skills- Clan skills include those required to build effective interpersonal relationships and develop others (E.g. building teamwork, communicating supportively). Adhocracy skills include those required to manage the future, innovate and promote change (e.g. solving problems creatively, articulating an energizing vision). Market skills include those required to compete effectively and manage external relationships (e.g. motivating others, using power and influence). Hierarchy skills include those required to maintain control and stability (e.g. managing personal stress time, solving problems rationally).
 
Clan skills and adhocracy are usually associated with leadership. Leadership has traditionally been used to describe what individuals do under conditions of change. When organizations are dynamic and undergoing transformation people at the top are expected to exhibit leadership (i.e. pay attention to clan and adhocracy issues). Management has traditionally been used to describe what executives do under conditions of stability.
 
Leadership has been defined as “doing the right things” whereas management has been defined as “doing things right”. Managers have been said to focus as monitoring, directing and refining current performance. Leadership has been equated with dynamism, vibrancy and charisma; management with hierarchy, equilibrium and control.
 
Developing managerial skills is not intended just for individuals who plan to enter managerial position or who currently manage organizations. It is meant to help you better manage many aspects of your life and relationships. It is intended to help you actually change your behavior, to improve your competence and to be more savvy in your relationships with different kinds of people. It is intended to improve your emotional intelligence.
 
When we talk about intelligence, we do not mean the ability to get good score on a certain kind of test or even the ability to do well in school. These are the best only indicators of something larger, deeper and far more important. By intelligence we mean a style of life, a way of behaving in various situations. The true test of intelligence is not how much we know how to do, but how we behave when we don’t know what to do. Fostering the development of such intelligence is the goal of developing management skills.
 
In their day to day activities managers need to use following skills or behaviors.
 
Managing personal time and stress.
Facilitating group decision making.
Creating problem solving.
Articulating and energizing vision.
Managing conflicts.
Gaining and using power.
Delegating
Active listening.
Holding interviews.
#p#分页标题#e#
Building team and teamwork.
Conducting meetings.
Fostering continuous improvement and quality.
Making analytical decisions.
Using interpersonal communication skills.
Motivating others.
Capitalizing on self awareness.
Facilitating organizational change.
Setting specific goals and targets.
Empowering others.
Giving speeches or presentations.
Defining and/or solving complex problems.
Negotiating
Managerial skills are sets of qualities and attributes in the personality of managers that enable them to effectively manage the working of the firm. Good managerial skills can create a world of difference in the efficiency and performance of the organization.
 
There is one proverb “love people rather than work”. Today manager has to understand the behavior of people i.e. his employees. In the globalization scenario, organization’s first priority is to tackle with challenge of change. The changes can be implemented only by having appropriate managerial skills of manager.
 
So manager should practice following tactics or skills to get exact result from concerned party.
 
Focus on people.
Develop or set realistic goal.
Plan and organize effectively.
Develop habit to get suggestions from employees.
Communicate effectively.
Develop skills of expressing hostility tactfully.
Various skills which managers need are as follows
 
Technical skills:-
Technical knowledge is concerned with the ability to use methods, techniques and equipments. In other words manager should have adequate knowledge regarding work, methods and styles through education and learning.
Interpersonal skills:-
Managers need to develop skills to understand people and have regular contact with their subordinates. They need to motivate their subordinates and seek co-operation from them. To maintain informal relations is necessary to enhance organization’s performance.
Conceptual skills:-
Conceptual skills means ability to understand the complexities of the overall organization, his ability to think in abstract, analyze work situation and his creature and innovative ability to access the environment. In short he should understand environment, organization and his own job so that he can stand to obtain organization goal.
Decision making skills: - Decision making can be regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision making process produces a final choice that may or may not prompt action. Decision making is the study of identifying and choosing alternative based on values and preferences of the decision maker. Decision making is one of the central activities of management and is a huge part of any process of implementation. Human performance with regard to decisions has been the subject of active research from several perspectives.#p#分页标题#e#
Psychological: Examining individual decisions in the context of a set of needs, preferences and values the individual has or seeks.
Cognitive: The decision making process is regarded as a continuous process integrated with the interactions with the environment.
Normative: The analysis of individual decisions concerned with the logic of decision making and rationality and the invariant choice it leads to.
Decision making can also be regarded as problem solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory.
 
Logical decision making is an important part of all science based professionals, whereas specialists apply their knowledge in a given area to make informed decisions. For example medical decision making often involves a diagnosis and the selection of appropriate treatment. Some research using naturalistic methods show however that in situations with higher time pressures, higher stakes, or increased ambiguities, experts use intuitive decision making rather than structured approaches following a reorganization primed decision that fits their experience and arrive at a course of action without weighing alternatives. A major part of decision making involves the analysis of a finite set of alternative described in terms of evaluative criteria. Information overload occurs when there is a substantial gap between the capacity of information and the ways in which people may or can adapt. The overload of information can be related to problem, processing and tasking, which effects decision making. These criteria may be benefit or cost in nature. Then the problem might be to rank these alternatives in terms of how attractive they are to the decision maker when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Another goal might be to just find the best alternative or to determine the related total priority of each alternative when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Solving such problems is the focus of multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA), also known as multi criteria decision making (MCDM). This area of decision making although very old has attracted the interest of many researchers and Practioners and is still debated as there are many MCDA/MCDM methods which may yield very different results when they are applied on exactly the same data. This leads to a formation of a decision making paradox.
 
In regards to management and decision making, each level of management is responsible for different things. Top level managers look at and create strategic plans where the organization’s vision goals and values are taken into account to create a plan that is cohesive with the mission statement. For mid level managers, tactical plans are created with specific steps with actions that need to be executed to meet the strategic objective. Finally, the frontline managers are responsible for creating and executing operational plans. These plans include the policies, processes and procedures of the organization. Each must take into account the overall goals and processes of the organization.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Rational and Irrational decision making - In economics, it is thought that if humans are rational and free to make their own decision, then they would behave according to rational choice theory. This theory states that people make decisions by determining the likelihood of potential outcome, the value of outcome and then multiplying the two for example, with 50% chance of winning $ 20 or a 100% chance of winning $ 10, people are more likely to choose the first option.
 
In reality, however there are some factors that affect decision making abilities and cause people to make irrational decisions, one of them being availability bias. Availability bias is the tendency of some items that are more readily available in memory to be judged as more frequently occurring. For example, someone who watches a lot of movies about terrorist attacks may think the frequency of terrorism to be higher than it actually is.
 
Problem analysis vs. decision making- It is important to differentiate between problem analysis and decision making. The concepts are completely separate from one another. Traditionally it is argued that problem analysis must be done first so that the information gathered in that process may be used towards decision making.
 
Problem analysis 问题分析
 
Analyze performance, what should the result be against what they actually are.
Problems are merely deviations from performance standards.
Problems must be precisely identified and described.
Problems are caused by a change from distinctive feature.
Something can always be used to distinguish between what has and hasn’t been affected by a cause.
Causes to problems can be deducted from relevant changes found in analyzing the problem.
Most likely cause to a problem is the one that exactly explains all the facts.
Decision making
 
Objectives must first be established.
Objectives must be classified and placed in order of importance.
(责任编辑:www.ukthesis.org)


------分隔符-------------------------------------
UK Thesis Base Contacts
推荐内容
  • 英国论文的introduct...

    本文是英国留学生论文写作指导,主要内容是针对英国论文中的introduction和conclusion的具体写作方法进行讲解。...

  • 如何改善印度的道路交通问题

    本报告的目的是为了比较在三个方面道路改造和重点公交线路的可行性:成本,效益和环境,在德里将建议的道路改造为更合适的选项,以解决交通拥堵问题。...

  • 以时尚和纺织品展览会:Int...

    服装和纺织品的历史,标志着我们的审美进步。服装和纺织品的变化也预示着纺织业,或其他材料的供应和使用,以及在人类历史上制造服装的技术的发展。...

  • 教育学专业留学论文intro...

    本文取自一篇留学论文introduction范文。文章讨论了网络教育消除了教学空间的成本和其他费用。希望给需要的读者带来帮助...

  • 英国论文写作指导:Intro...

    本文是一篇英国教育学论文Introduction部分.探讨了科技在今后30年的发展将对英国教育业产生的巨大影响。供读者阅读思考。...

  • 论文dissertation...

    这是一篇节选自标准版本的dissertation的introduction部分,这篇毕业的introduction写作非常好,非常值得借鉴!可作为dissert......