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美国经济历史学家(翻译调整下,不太通顺)

时间:2015-07-23 11:32来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
阿尔弗雷德·钱德勒是美国的一位经济历史学家,他曾提出资本主义这一想法,是关于国家经济的历史,提议建立管理与企业一体化模型。根据哈维和琼斯(1992:11)的研究结果,钱德勒指出20世纪工业型企业数量的增加是刺激和改变现代经济呈动态经济模式增长的主要因素。本文会评估钱德勒的大型管理企业模式,揭示如何使国家经济顺利发展。在面对不同国家的经济模式时,他们如何应用这一模式;主要被调查的国家有美国、德国、日本、英国和中国。通过对上世纪中经济形势的考察,指出钱德勒的研究贡献对经济领域的影响。
 
钱德勒(1990:14)把管理企业作为现代的工业企业,包含几个不同的操作程序,使用生产和分配的特定功能。这也是一个“治理结构”,即当前和未来的生产、分配的投资决策是由具备特定知识技能的低层次、中层次、高层次管理者共同制定的(威廉姆森,1981:1539-44)。所有管理者应该对企业的管理负责,而不是发展成低效率管理的家族企业。
 
Alfred D. Chandler Jr., an American economic historian who conceptualizes the idea of capitalism related to national economies history, proposing the model of the integrated managerial enterprise. According to Harvey and Jones (1992:11), Chandler points out the increase amount of industrial enterprises in the 20th century were the key element that stimulating and transforming the modern economies which were grown and created by following a dynamic economic pattern. This essay is going to critically evaluate how effectively Chandler's model of large managerial enterprises uncovers the long-term success of leading national economies and how they apply that economic pattern across varied national circumstances by investigating the US, Germany, Japan, UK and China and by reviewing Chandler's influential research contributions in this area during the past century.
 
Chandler (1990:14) describes the managerial enterprise as the modern industrial enterprise containing several different operating units to carry out specific functions of production and distribution. It is also a "governance structure" that the investment decisions for current and future production and distribution are made by a hierarchy of lower-, middle- and top-level managers with specific knowledge and expertise (Williamson, 1981:1539-44). All of these managers should be responsible to manage the organization rather than the inefficient family-owned organizations.
 
First of all, when did the development of big business begin? Schmitz (1993:3,14-15) states that at the end of 19th century, the innovation of railway had initiated the large managerial hierarchies, particularly in America and Europe, since the railway companies cannot be run by a single family.
 
Some large capital-intensive enterprises aware of the long-term achievement is to extend their businesses into new geographical and product markets. Thus, they began to adopt Chandler's multidivisional structure (or M-form) rather than Porter's value chain and externalities. From Chandler et al's (1997:35-36) point of view, M-form is the most effective growth strategy and a decentralised structure to support a firm's long-term organizational goals and strengthen the internalities of an organization.(责任编辑:guohan_li)


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