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经济学作业:中央政府支出

时间:2015-10-22 23:56:55 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

中央政府支出
 

自1987 - 88年的预算,中央政府采用了一项新分类的公共支出。在这种新的分类下,所有公共支出分为非计划支出和开支计划。中央政府的非计划被进一步分为收入支出和资本支出。收益支出由税收来提供资金,包括税收和非税收收入。
 

非计划收入支出包括(a)收入利息支出、国防支出,主要补贴(食品、肥料和促进出口),其他补贴,减免债务的农民,邮政赤字,警察、养老金、其他总务(国家机关、税收征管、外部事务,等等)。(b) 社会服务(教育、医疗、广播等)。(c)经济服务(农业、工业、电力、交通、通讯、科技、等等)。(d) 拨款给各州和联邦领土与外国政府赠款。
 

非计划资本支出包括国防资本支出等项目,公共企业贷款,贷款给州和联邦领土与外国政府贷款。计划支出包括(a)中央计划,如农业、农村发展、灌溉和防洪,能源、工业和矿物质,交通、通讯、科技、环境、社会服务和(b)中央帮助州和联邦属地的计划。
 

改革开放前的趋势
 

印度的政府支出在1950 - 51年迅速增长。在独立之前,印度没有计划,政府的一部分没有努力去建立一个福利国家。因此,公共支出相对较小。
 

第二次世界大战期间,政府支出因为战争的努力而增加。在战后时期的规划和政府提供的福利服务在很大程度上导致了公共支出,在中心处和在美国迅速增加。
 

此外,支出的情况已经变化非常明显。英国政府在印度独立之前,主要对国家的国防和公民管理感兴趣。因此,中央政府和邦政府大部分支出花费在这些服务上。

 

The central government expenditure

The Central government adopted a new classification of public expenditure from 1987-88 budgets. Under this new classification, all public expenditure is classified into non-plan expenditure and plan expenditure.
 

Non-plan expenditure of the central govt. is further divided into revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. Revenue expenditure is financed out of revenue receipts, both tax revenue and non tax revenue.
 

Non-plan revenue expenditure includes (a) Interest payments, defense revenue expenditure, major subsidies (food, fertilizers and export promotion), other subsidies, debt relief to farmers, postal deficit, police, pensions, other general services(organs of state, tax collection, external affairs, etc.) (b) Social services (education, health, broadcasting, etc.) (c) Economic services (agriculture, industry, power, transport, communications, science and technology, etc.)(d) Grants to states and union territories and grants to foreign governments.
Non-plan capital expenditure includes such items as defense capital expenditure, loans to public enterprises, loans to states and union territories and loans to foreign governments.Plan expenditure consists of (a) central plans such as on agriculture, rural development, irrigation and flood control, energy, industry and minerals, transport, communications, science and technology and environment, social services and (b) central assistance for the states and union territories plans.

 

改革开放前的趋势——Trends in pre-reform period
 

Government expenditure in India has been growing very rapidly after 1950-51. Before independence, there was no planning in India and no effort on the part of government to establish a welfare state. Public expenditure was, therefore, comparatively small.
 

During Second World War, government expenditure increased because of the war efforts. In the post war period introduction of planning and the provision by the government of welfare services in a big way caused public expenditure, both at the centre and in the states to increase rapidly.
 

Moreover the complexion of expenditure has also been changing very conspicuously. Before independence the British government in India was interested primarily in the defense and civil administration of the country. Therefore, a large part of the expenditure of the central and state governments was on these services.
 

农业和水利—— Agriculture and irrigation
 

Except during the first plan when agriculture and irrigation were allotted 30% of total outlay, all other plans allotted between 20-24% of outlay.
 

电力项目——Power Program

The allocation on power development was low during the first four plans between 10-15% of the total outlay. The low priority given to the power development was on the ground that industries had not come up so fast and the progress in rural electrification, use of electric power in railway transport system was inadequate. It was only in the seventh plan that the allocation on power was raised steeply to 28% of the total outlay.
 

行业和矿物质——Industries and Minerals
 

The high priority given to the agriculture in the public sector programs in the first plan was at the cost of low priority given to the industries. But from the second plan onwards the relative share of industries and minerals was raised sharply from 6% in the first plan to 24% of the total plan outlay in second plan. The allocation o industries have been generally around 24% of the total public sector outlay till sixth plan. In the next two plans, outlays to industries declined steeply.
 

交通和通讯——Transportation and Communications#p#分页标题#e#
 

The allocation in transportation and communication was quite high during the first two plans- between 25 to 28%. But since then their share has declined. However, the country was regularly facing serious transport bottlenecks which resulted in retarded output and income. Consequently, the Eighth plan pushed up the outlay to 23%.
 

社会和杂项服务——Social and Miscellaneous Services
 

The services include education, health and family planning, housing, labor welfare and welfare of backward class, etc. These services are significant from the point of view of the poor and economically backward people. A considerable amount of scarce resources have been allotted in plans for the provision of these services. But for the first and the third plan, which allotted 23 and 24% respectively for social services, the outlay ranged between 15 to 19% from the second to the eighth Plans.
 

改革开放后的趋势——Trends in post-reform period
 

Right from 1980s, a marked deterioration was set into the budgetary positions of both the Center and the State. The second oil price rise (1976) affected the state of government finances in a big way. This resulted not only in increase in already high outstanding debt but also a larger interest payment. An efficient response to the shock, involved a thorough reorganization of the macroeconomic setup. Reduction in fiscal deficit, depreciation of exchange rate and a restoration of market forces in the financial sector were all part of the package deal to save the economy.
 

A program of macroeconomic stabilization was initiated by the government in July 1991. it was during this period that the new economic policy was adopted and the economy gradually underwent towards liberalization, privatization and globalization.
 

Henceforth a paradigm shift in the pattern of government expenditure was observed during this period which can be studied as follows:
 

第八个五年计划——EIGHTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1992-97)
 

The eighth five year plan reflected the process of fiscal reform and also economic reforms which reflected government’s attempt to accelerate economic growth and improve the quality of life of the common man.
 

The second oil price rise (1976) affected the state of government finances in a big way. This resulted not only in increase in already high outstanding debt but also a larger interest payment. An efficient response to the shock, involved a thorough reorganization of the macroeconomic setup. Reduction in fiscal deficit, depreciation of exchange rate and a restoration of market forces in the financial sector were all part of the package deal to save the economy.
 

A program of macroeconomic stabilization was initiated by the government in July 1991. It was during this period that the new economic policy was adopted and the economy gradually underwent towards liberalization, privatization and globalization. Henceforth a paradigm shift in the pattern of government expenditure was observed during this period.#p#分页标题#e#
 

The eighth five year plan reflected the process of fiscal reform and also economic reforms which reflected government’s attempt to accelerate economic growth and improve the quality of life of the common man.There was a slight improvement in the allocation for social services to 19% in this plan so as to improve “human capitalâ€Â especially by improving literacy. Also, outlay on energy was increased in order to reduce infrastructure constraint.
 

During ninth five year plan, infrastructure which became a major constraint due to inadequacy of complementary private investment, was paid due attention. There was a re-orientation of plan priorities and hence the change in public outlay was distinct. By allocating 72% of the plan funds to irrigation, energy, transport and communication and social services, this plan stressed on the development of infrastructure.
 

Overall increase in the plan outlay for Tenth plan over that of Ninth Plan (Rs. 29944 crores) was 232%.

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