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对于土地政策实施及其影响的评估

时间:2015-12-07 09:33来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
对于土地政策实施及其影响的评估
An Assessment Of Its Implementation And Its Implications
 
导致印度贫穷的真正原因不应该在疾病或文盲问题中寻找,这些只是症状,也不在于印度的习俗、信仰,更不是在二次人口统计数据中找答案,而在于整个国家所基于的经济机构。
印度拥有一个蓬勃发展的经济,其GDP在2005至2008年间以平均9.06%的指数增加,外汇储备不断膨胀,截至2011年7月29日已达到316.80亿美元,。然而,印度的极端财富与其悲惨的贫困和饥饿统计量一样突出,它已成为一个极端矛盾的国家。农村地区68.84%的印度人中,大多数是穷人,他们被边缘化,依靠农业作为他们的主要收入来源。在印度超过4亿人仍然无法使用电力。[ 3 ] 2008年全球饥饿指数显示,估计印度有接近3.5亿人的食物得不到保障-这意味着他们不确定他们的下一顿饭将来自哪里。该国正努力解决种种问题,如贫困、文盲、营养不良、缺乏安全饮水和卫生设施等。
 
The real cause of India's poverty must not be sought in disease or illiteracy, which are but symptoms, nor yet in Indian customs and beliefs, nor again in the population figures, but in the economic organization on which the whole life of the country is based. [1] 
 
简介-INTRODUCTION
 
India is blessed with a burgeoning economy whose GDP expanded at the average rate of 9.06 % from 2005-2008 and swelling foreign exchange reserves which touched 316.80 billion dollars as of July 29, 2011. [2] Yet India's plentiful wealth and riches is in striking juxtaposition with its deplorable poverty and hunger statistics and it has emerged as a country of extreme paradoxes. Rural areas home to some 68.84% Indians, most of who are poor, marginalized and depend on agriculture as their main source of income. More than 400 million people in India still don't have access to electricity. [3] Global Hunger Index 2008, estimates that India has close to 350 million people who are "food insecure" - meaning they are not certain where their next meal will come from. The country is grappling with myriad problems such as poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, lack of safe drinking water and sanitation.
 
The root cause of India's backwardness is the backward nature of its agrarian economy, which continues to be in such a state primarily because of the government's inability to undertake a thoroughgoing land reforms post Independence. To quote Hartwell "there are no examples of industrialisation and growth in any of the major economies of the world, which were not preceded or accompanied by an agricultural transformation". [4] The economic success of East Asia (Japan, South Korea and Taiwan) is largely attributed to the fact in all these countries extensive land reforms were undertaken. These land reforms had the effect of eliminating the exploitative landlord class and thereby contributing to rapid economic growth by laying down the basis for an equitable distribution of the benefits of growth. [5] In this context the paper aims to study the features of the land reform policy in India, assess its implementation and document its impact on future development of agriculture and economic development as a whole.(责任编辑:cinq)


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