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阿拉伯的高生育率

时间:2016-02-20 14:23:41 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
阿拉伯的高生育率
 
世界上最高的比率之一就是阿拉伯的高生育率。该国平均增长率约2.4%,比在1985-1995年间下降了约2.6%。如此高的比率真的有一定的危险性,因为它会导致人口数量大幅度增加;今天的阿拉伯世界人口大约是3.58亿人,到2020约4亿人。一位联合国高级官员对阿拉伯世界人口的高增长率做出警告,因为它可能会导致政策发展迟缓,也可能会导致社会动荡,公共设施服务和环境压力大等问题。此外,在大多数情况下,人口过剩的问题可能导致贫穷,造成像交通堵塞,水资源短缺等。这些都是摆在未来,政策发展中的问题。现在,对于这个问题的解决方案是教育,改善,计划生育和生育控制。通过教育妇女和穷人来使问题得到缓解,他们知道,孩子太多会加剧他们的贫困,恶化他们的财务状况。因此,降低生育率的更好方法就是鼓励夫妇更明智地规划生活,并把更多的孩子意味着更加贫困这一事实告诉他们。
 
High Rate Of Fertility In The Arabic World 
 
The high rate of fertility in the Arabic world is one of the highest rates in the world with an estimated average rate of growth by about 2.4%, down from about 2.6%during the period 1985-1995.This high rate is seen to be really dangerous because it will result in a great increase in the number of population; The population of the Arab world today is around 358million people and it will be about 400 million in 2020. A top UN official warned the authorities in Arab world of the high growth rate of population as it could lead to a delay in the policies of progress and development and also could lead to social disturbance, pressure on public utility services and environmental problems. Besides, the problem of overpopulation can lead, in most cases, to poverty, and causing problems like traffic jams water shortage which is one of the future challenging in the face of the policies of growth and progress. Now, the possible solutions for this problem are education, improvement, family planning and birth control. Through educating women and poor people, they could know that many children will increase their poverty and worsen their financial situation. So, the better way to decrease the fertility rates is to encourage couples to plan their life more wisely and to put in their minds the fact that more children mean more poverty. Egypt, for example, announced a program to reduce its overpopulation by family planning education and putting women in the workforce. It was announced in June 2008 by the Minister of Health and Population Hatem el-Gabali. The government has set aside 480 million Egyptian pounds (about 90 million U.S. dollars) for the program. (1)
 
The second problem to talk about here is the high percentages of unemployment in the Arabic world and the bad effects of such a problem on the society and the country as a whole. The Arab Labour Organization (ALO) rates unemployment in the Arab world as the worst worldwide. According to a report published in 2008, the rate of unemployment in Arab countries is about 14 percent, which means that there are more than 17 million people without work around the Arabic world .in addition, the report stated that unemployment among Arab youths is nearly 25 percent most of whom were educated which indicates how serious the problem is. The report also found that unemployment rates were as high as 66 percent in some Arab states which is really dangerous “It is becoming clear that both problems are no longer issues that can be put on hold. Although unemployment is a global problem, it takes a more acute form in the Arab region. Some argue that Arab countries have already taken too long in discussing how to tackle unemployment. They were supposed to be already engaged in the implementation of a plan of action, as these are old and long-known problems “(2). No one can deny that these numbers are really terrifying especially if we take into consideration the dangerous problems related to the unemployment between young people. Unemployment can easily increase the crime, drugs and many other problems that can be obstacles in the way of progress and development. public sector's limited capacity to employ Arab workforce is considered one of the most important reasons that cause such problem, so encouraging the private sector seems to be a good solution .Moreover, the absence of a favourable economic and political environment, and the State's control over the economy represent an obstacle in the face of the efforts made to expand this sector. So, Arabic governments should encourage investment through issuing a number of laws that could help create new job opportunities for unemployed. Another solution would be focusing on the education of the technical aspect which is in high demand in the labour market through spending more money in this field.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Poor industry is also one of the most important problems in the Arabic world. Most Arab countries are open markets to the industries of the other countries of Europe, china and the states. This is simply because of the heavy dependence on the exporting of oil and gas and using the revenues to spend them on the fields of services and luxury. “Lack of industry is one of the major problems in the Arab world." It is very clear that Arabs are not using their vast resources to at least obtain some of the basic knowledge to be players in the international explosion of Technology and commerce. With a very small manufacturing and a very week agricultural base, the Arab world depends nearly completely on foreign imports to maintain an increasingly high-tech urban society and that makes the imported food and chemicals critical to survival. Locally produced capital goods almost not exist. Transport, communications, power, water purification and distribution, and construction equipment must all be imported. Building the essential industry in the Arab countries stayed a dream because of the Excessive dependence of the west advanced industrial economies and Inadequate manpower education and rehabilitation” (3).Arab governments should start thinking of the ways that guarantee the development of the industry such as encouraging and supporting the agriculture sector that form the essential base of any industry .furthermore, the governments have to protect the national industries that suffer from the policy of the open market which opened the door widely to the products of the other countries with lower prices the fact which push customer to by them neglecting the national ones. Supervising the quality of the national products to gain the trust of the consumers who trust the other products produced outside the Arabic world because they are usually better. In addition, encouraging the investment in the field of industry and make it easier to set up a business will surly participates to the transformation of western experiences to the Arabic countries. Arabs also should start thinking about other kinds of industry which are far from the petroleum industries to build the strong base that can be the beginning for any future policies.
 
In conclusion, the Arabic world has many serious economical and social problems which can affect its process of development in the future .The problems of the high rate of fertility, unemployment and the poor industry are the most important problems and extensive efforts should be there to find solutions for them before it is too late to do that. As illustrated before ,interesting in increasing the level of education and family planning will make people realize that more children means more agony especially for those who are poor. Automatically, the high rate of fertility may result in unemployment which is considered to be the direct reason of many social and economical problems such as crime, poverty and many other serious problems. Here, in this case, encouraging investment through issuing a number of laws that help creating new job opportunities for unemployed and focusing on the education of the technical aspect which is in high demand in the labour market. The last problem was the bad situation of the Arabic industry as it is accused of being backward comparing to the industry of the other countries around the world. So, encouraging the investment in the field of industry will participates to the transformation of technology to the Arabic world and make the Arabic industry get better.
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