股票市场是否与经济增长或股票市场相关的争论可以作为预测未来的经济指标。许多经济学家认为股票市场可以是未来经济衰退的原因，如果有一个巨大的下降，股票价格会下跌。然而，有争议的问题是股票市场的预测能力的证据是不可靠的，有这样一个情况，如1987年股票市场崩溃，其次是经济衰退和1997年金融危机。（马来西亚证券市场与经济增长：因果检验）。 如果我们把重点放在一些关于这个话题的相关文献的发表上，你们问题就产生了： 经济发展是受证券市场发展的影响吗？ 虽然有很多人在说股票市场对经济有帮助，但对经济的影响却很小。罗斯莱文在他1998年发表的论文上建议，最近的证据表明股票市场真的能带来繁荣的经济增长。（参考） Whether national economy is affecting the stock market or other way round? A lot of studies have done on the past what are relationship of these variables. In my work I have used cointegration and Granger Causality method to find out the relationship between the stock index price and Economic growth indicator GDP.
The debate of whether stock market is associated with economic growth or the stock market can be served as the economic indicator to predict future. According to many economists stock market can be a reason for the future recession if there is a huge decrease in the stock price or vice versa. However, there are evidence of controversial issue about the ability of prediction from the stock market is not reliable if there is a situation like 1987 stock market crashed followed by the economic recession and 1997 financial crises. (Stock market and economic growth in Malaysia: causality test). The aim of the study is to find the relation between the stock market performance and the real economic activity in case of four countries The UK, The USA, Malaysia and Japan. With my limited knowledge I have tried to find out the role of financial development in stimulating economic growth. A lot of economists have different view about stock market development and the economic growth. If we focus on some related literature published on this topic one question arises:#p#分页标题#e# Is economic development is affected by stock market development? Even though there are lots of debate on some are saying that stock market can help the economy but the effect of stock market in the economy especially in the economy is very little. Ross Levine suggested in his paper published in 1998 that recent evidence suggested stock market can really give a boom to economic growth. (REFERENCE) It is not really possible to measure the growth by simply looking at the ups and down in the stock market indicator and by looking at the rates of growth in GDP. A lot of things can cause in the growth of stock market like changes in the banking system, foreign participation in the in the financial market may participate strongly. Apparently it seems that these developments can cause development of stock market followed by the good economic growth. But to check the accuracy one required to follow an appropriate method which would meaningfully measure whether stock price is really effecting the economic growth or not? In my work I have tried to find out the co integrating relationship between Stock price and GDP and tried to check if there is a long run and short run relationship between the stock price and GDP. The method used for the studies is Engle Granger co integration method. To do this I have used ADF (Augmented Dickey Fuller Test) to check for the stationary behaviour of the variables and then I have performed the Engle Granger Engle Granger co integration method followed by residual based error correction model. To check for the short run relationship I have used 2nd stage Engle Granger co integration method. To check the causal effect of the four countries stock market and economic growth I used Granger Causality Method. In this paper I have reviewed some studies of scholars which I have discussed on the literature review part. This paper contains five parts Part two is about the literature based on the past wok of scholars. Part Three discussed about the Data. Part four is about the methodology, Results are discussed on part five and part six is all about the summary and conclusion of the whole study. In my work I have founded there is no long run relationship between stock market and economic growth in all four countries. In addition there is no causal relation between stock index yield and the national economy growth rate. The empirical results of the thesis concludes that the possibility of seemingly abnormal relationship between the stock index and national economy of these for countries.
If we go back to the study of Schumpeter (1912) his studies emphasizes the positive influence on the development of a country’s financial sector on the level and the potential risk of losses caused by the adverse selection and moral hazard or transaction costs are argued by him how necessary the rate of growth argues that financial sectors provides of reallocating capital to minimize the potential losses. Empirical evidence from king and Levine (1983) show that the level of financial intermediation is good predictor of long run rates of growth, capital accumulation and productivity. Enhanced liquidity of financial market leads to financial development and investors can easily diversify their risk by creating their portfolio in different investments with higher investment. Another study from Levine and Zervos (1996) using the data of 24 countries found that a strong positive correlation between stock market development and economic growth. Their expanded study on 49 countries from 1976-1993, they used Stock Market liquidity, Economic growth rate, Capital Accumulating rate and output Growth Rate. They found that all the variables are positively correlated with each other. Demiurgic and Maksimovic (1996) have found positive causal effects of financial development on economic growth in line with the ‘supply leading’ hypothesis. According to his studies countries with better financial system has a smooth functioning stock market tend to grow much faster as they have access to much needed funds for financially constrained economic enterprises by the large efficient banks. Related research was done for the past three decades focusing on the role of financial development in stimulating economic growth they never considered about the stock market. An empirical study by Ming Men and Rui on Stock market index and economic growth in China suggest that possible reason of apparent abnormal relationship between the stock Index and national economy in china. Apparent abnormal relationship may be because of the following reason inconsistency of Chinese GDP with the structure of its stock market, role played by private sector in growth of GDP and disequilibrium of finance structure etc. The study was done using the cointegration method and Granger causality test, the overall finding of the study is Chinese finance market is not playing an important role in economic development. (Men M 2006 China paper). An article by Indrani Chakraborti based on the case of India presented in a seminar in kolkata in October, 2006 provides some information about the existence of long run stable relationship between stosk market capitalization, bank credit and growth rate of real GDP. She used the concept of the granger causality after using both the Engle-Granger and Johansen technique. In her study she found GDP is co-integrated with financial depth, Volatility in the stock market and GDP growth is co integrated with all the findings the paper explain that the in an overall sense, economic growth is the reson for financial development in India.(Chakraboty Indrani).#p#分页标题#e# Few writers from Malaysia found that stock market does help to predict future economy. Stock market is associated with economic growth play as a source for new private capital. Causal relationship between the stock market and economic growth which was done by using the formal test for causality by C.J. Granger and yearly Malaysia data for the period 1977-2006. The result from the study explain that future prediction is possible by stock market. A study focused on the relationship between stock market performance and real economic activity in Turkey. The study shows existence of a long run relationship between real economic activity and stock prices…………………………………… Result from the study pointed out that economic activity increases after a shock in stock prices and then declines in Turkish market from the second quarter and a unitary (Turkish paper) An international time series analysis from 1980-1990 by By RAGHURAM G. RAJAN AND LUIGI ZINGALES shows some evidence of the relation between stock market and economic growth. This paper describes whether economic growth is facilitated by financial development. He found that financial development has strong effect on economic growth. (Rajan and Zingales, 1998) The study of Ross LEVINE AND SARA ZERVOS on finding out the long run relationship between stock market and bank suggest a positive effect both the variables has positive effect on economic growth. International integration and volatility is not properly effected by capital stock market. And private save saving rates are not at all affected by these financial indicators. The study was done on 47 countries data using cross sectional analysis. In theory the conventional literature on growth was not sufficient enough to look for the connection between financial development and economic growth and the reason is they were focused on the steady state level of capital stock per workerof productivity. And they were not really concentrated on the rate of growth. Actually the main concern was legitimated to exogenous technical progress. (Levine and Zervos 1998) Belgium Stock market study with economic development shows the positive long run relationship between both the variables. In case of Belgium the evidences are quiet strong that Economic growth is caused by the development of the stock market. It is more focused between the period 1873 and 1935; basically this period is considered as the period of rapid industrialization in Belgium. The importance of the stock market in Belgium is more pronounced after liberalization of the stock market in 1867-1873. The time varying nature of the link between stock market development and economic growth is explained by the institutional change in the stock exchange. They also tried to find out the relationship to the universal banking system. Before 1873 the economic growth was based on the banking system and after 1873 stock market took the place. (Stock Market Development and economic growth in Belgium, Stijin Van Nieuwerburg, Ludo Cuyvers, Frans Buelens July 5, 2005)#p#分页标题#e# Senior economist of the World Bank’s Policy research department Ross Levine has discussed about Stock market in his paper Stock Markets: A Spur to economic growth on the impact of development. Less risky investments are possible in liquid equity market and it attracts the savers to acquire an asset, equity. As, they can sell it quickly when they need access to their savings, and if they want to alter their portfolio. Though many long term investment is required for the profitable investment. But reluctance of the investors towards long term investment as they don’t have the access to their savings easily. Permanent access to capital is raised by the companies through equity issues as they are facilitating longer term, more profitable investments and prospect of long term economic growth is enhanced as liquid market improves the allocation of capital. The empirical evidence from the study strongly suggests that greater stock markets create more liquidity or at least continue economic growth. (Levine. R A spur to economic Growth) A lot of research has established that future economic growth is influenced by country’s financial growth, stock market index returns are another factor of economic growth. The researcher focused to extend their study; they tie together these two strings and started analyzing the relationship between banking industry, stock returns and future economic growth. Research was done on 18 developed and 18 emerging markets and the results are positive and noteworthy relationship between future GDP and stock returns. Few important features can also be predicted such as bank-accounting-disclosure standards, banking crises, insider trading law enforcement and government ownership of banks. (Bank stock returns and economic growth q Rebel A. Cole a, Fariborz Moshirian b,*, Qiongbing Wu c a Department of Finance, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60604, USA b School of Banking and Finance, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia c Newcastle raduate School of Business, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia Received 29 September 2006; accepted 26 July 2007Available online 21 September 2007) Another paper was focused on the linkages between financial development and economic growth using TYDL model for the empirical exercises by Purna Chandra Padhan suggests that both stock price and economic activity are integrated of order one and Johansen-Juselias Coin-integration tests for this study found one co integrating vector exists. It is proved by the spurious relation rule in this study the existence of at least one direction of causality. He described that bi-directional causality between stock price and economic growth meaning that economic activity can be enhanced by well developed stock exchange and vice-versa.
( Title: The nexus between stock market and economic activity: an empirical analysis for India Author(s): Purna Chandra Padhan Journal: International Journal of Social Economics Year: 2007 Volume: 34 Issue: 10 Page: 741 – 753 DOI: 10.1108/03068290710816874 Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited)#p#分页标题#e# A study by Randall Filler(2000) using 70 countries data over the period 1985-1997 proves that there is a very little relationship between economic growth and stock market especially in developing countries and currency appreciation has occurred. From the result of the study we can see that an important role may be played by the stock market in an economy, and these are not essential for economic growth. However, another study on Iran by N. Shahnoushi, A.G Daneshvar, E Shori and M. Motalebi 2008 Financial development is not considered as an effective factor to the economic growth. The study was focused on the causal relationship between the financial development and economic growth. Time series data used for the study from the period 1961-2004. Granger causality shows there is no co integrating relationship between financial development and economic growth in Iran only the economical growth leads to financial development. Establishing link between savings and investment is very much important and financial market provides that. Transient or lasting growth is the ultimate affect of the financial market. Economic growth can be influenced by financial market by improving the productivity of the capital, Investment to firms can be channelled and greater capital accumulation by increasing savings. To ensure the stability of the financial market potential regulation is important due to asymmetric information, especially at the time of financial liberalization. (Economic Development and Financial Market Tosson Nabil Deabes Moderm Academy for technology aand computer sciences; MAM November 2004 Economic Development & Financial Market Working Paper No. 2 )
The nature of the Data is series used for the time series regression.
List of Variables: UK GDP USP UK Share price LUGDP Log of UK GDP LUSP Log of UK Share price USGDP USA GDP USSP USA (DOW Jones) Share price LUSGDP Log of USA GDP LUSSP Log of USA Share price MGDP Malaysia GDP MSP Malaysia Share price LMGDP Log of Malaysia GDP LMSP Log of Malaysia Share price JGDP Japan GDP JSP Japan Share Price LJGDP Log of Japan GDP LJSP Log of Japan Share price
Meanwhile, cointegration does not imply high correlation; two series can be co integrated and yet have very low correlations. Cointegration tests allow us to determine whether financial variables of different national markets move together over the long run, while providing for the possibility of short-run divergence. The first step in the analysis is to test each index series for the presence of unit roots, which shows whether the series are nonstationary. All the series must be nonstationarity and integrated of the same order. To do this, we apply both the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test. Once the stationarity requirements are met, we proceed Granger bivariate cointegration (1987) procedure. 30 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 24 (2009)
is in this case variable of interest = , is the differencing operator, t is the time trend and is the random component of zero mean and constant variance. The parameters to be estimated are { }#p#分页标题#e# Null and alternative hypothesis of unit root test are:
,
Cointegration Long term common random trend between non stationary time series. The linear combination of both the non stationary series can be stationary if both the variables are integrated in same order. Cointegration is a very powerful approach in the long term analysis because a common stochastic trend is shared in cointegration that mean two series will not drift separately too much. They might deviate from each other but in the long run but eventually the will revert back in the long run. If there is very low correlation between the series still the series can be co-integrated as high correlation is not implied in cointegration. The reason for choosing the method as it will allow us to check the move between the variable in the long run even there might be a divergence in the short run. The first step in the analysis is check each index series whether the series for the presence of unit root which shows whether the series is non stationary. The method that I followed to do this is Augmented Dickey Fuller Test (ADF). I proceed the Granger cointegration technique 1987 when the stationary requirements are met. According to Engle and Granger (1987) to check for cointegration if both the variables and are integrated with order one the proposed method for cointegration residual-based test for cointegration (Engle-Granger method). So from the above method we can find the equation By regressing with And after that and is denoted as the estimated regression coefficient vectors. After that I saved the residual from the above equation. Then, = – - is representing the estimated residual vector. If the residual is integrated with order zero that means the series for the residual is stationary, and and are then co integrated and vice versa. I have checked it by performing Augmented Dickey fuller test on the residual series on level value with intercept only of each country.#p#分页标题#e# An in this situation (1, -) is called co-integrating vector if the series is stationary. Therefore is a co integrating equation, so, from it we can say that there is long run relationship between and.
In terms of conceptual definition causality is consist of different ideas, this concept produce a relation between caused and results were agreed upon. Aristo defines that there exist a link between causes and results and without causes these results are impossible. And this is strong relationship. Some economists believe that the idea of causality is the mix of both theoretical and explanation and statistical concept. The frontline operational definition of causality is given by some economist, but Granger is the one who provided the information to understand it correctly and completely. Granger causality approach (1969), let’s think the variable y is Economic Growth (GDP) and x is Stock price index, if it is possible to predict the past values of y and x than from the lagged values of y alone. X is said to be granger caused by and y is helping in predicting it. in case of a simple bivariate model, causality can be tested between stock market growth and economic growth. Granger causality run on the basis of the following bivariate regressions of the form: (1) (2) Where GDP denotes economic growth and SP denotes the stock price index and they explain the changes in growth. Variables are expressed in logarithm form. The distribution of and are uncorrelated by assumption. From the equation one it can be said that current GDP is related to lagged values of itself and as well as that of SP. And equation 2 postulates same kind of behaviour for SP. Both the equations can be obtained by ordinary least squares (OLS). The f statistics are the Wald statistics for the joint hypothesis: and F test is carried out for the null hypothesis of no Granger causality. The formula of f statistic is Lagged term is defined here by m; number of parameter is defined as k.
Variables level/1st Difference
value With Trend #p#分页标题#e#t statistic value With trend and Intercept 1% 5% 10% 1% 5% GDP Level -2.653258 -3.522887 -2.901779 -2.588280 -2.693600 -4.088713 -3.472558 1st Difference -9.053185 -3.524233 -2.902358 -2.588587 -9.003482 -4.090602 -3.473447 Share Price Level -2.116137 -3.522887 -2.901779 -2.588280 -2.203273 -4.088713 -3.472558 1st Difference -6.899295 -3.524233 -2.902358 -2.588587 -6.844396 -4.090602 -3.473447
Table 01: Unit root test for stationary Japan Variables level/1st Difference
value With Trend t statistic value With trend and Intercept 1% 5% 10% 1% 5% GDP Level -1.195020 -3.522887 -2.901779 -2.588280 -1.933335 -4.088713 -3.472558 1st Difference -5.951843 -3.524233 -2.902358 -2.588587 -5.923595 -4.090602 -3.473447 Share Price Level -1.900406 -3.522887 -2.901779 -2.588280 -1.891183 -4.088713 -3.472558 1st Difference#p#分页标题#e# -7.842122 -3.524233 -2.902358 -2.588587 -7.779757 -4.090602 -3.473447 The unit root test result for LMGDP and LMSP values presented in natural logarithm. And the level values with intercept and with intercept and trend for LMGDP is -1.195020 and -1.93335 respectively. The values are higher than the critical value means the series has non stationary behaviour. On the other hand the 1st difference values with intercept and with intercept and trend are -5.951843 and -5.923595 respectively. The 1st difference values are integrated with order one. And in the same way I did the ADF test to check for Stationary behaviour of LMSP in level and first difference with intercept and trend. The values in level are -1.900406 and -1.891183 with intercept and trend us higher than the critical value and the series is not integrated with order one. The first difference t statistic values are -7.842122 and -7.779757 with intercept and with intercept and trend respectively are less than the critical value in both the case implies that the series is integrated with order one. Variables level/1st Difference
value With Trend t statistic value With trend and Intercept 1% 5% 10% 1% 5% GDP Level -0.690866 -3.522887 -2.901779 -2.588280 -2.377333 -4.088713 -3.472558 1st Difference -7.474388 -3.524233 -2.902358 -2.588587 -7.439027 -4.090602 -3.473447 Share Price Level -1.711599 -3.522887 -2.901779 -2.588280 -1.261546 -4.088713 -3.472558 1st Difference -7.254574 -3.524233 -2.902358 -2.588587 -7.391821 -4.090602 -3.473447 The results from Augmented Dickey Fuller test (ADF) for UK GDP in level with intercept and with intercept and trend is –0.690866 and -2.377333 respectively. Both the values in level are higher than the critical value and are integrated in order 0 shows non stationary behaviour. The t statistic values in 1st difference with intercept and with intercept and trend are -7.474388 and -7.439207 respectively. Which suggest that the critical values are less than the critical values in 1%, 5% and 10% level. So from the above hypothesis it can be said that it series is integrated with order one. When I performed the unit root test using the same method the series in level with intercept and with intercept and trend the values in are -1.711599 and -1.261546 respectively. The values are higher than the critical values implies that they are not integrated in order one shows non stationary behaviour. However, the 1st difference value of log natural share price is -7.254573 and -7.391821 with intercept and with intercept and trend respectively. So from the result we can say that the series is integrated in order one in both the cases with intercept and with intercept and trend. So the series in first difference is stationary.#p#分页标题#e# Variables level/1st Difference
value With Trend t statistic value With trend and Intercept 1% 5% 10% 1% 5% GDP Level -3.244801 -3.522887 -2.901779 -2.588280 2.866507 -4.088713 -3.472558 1st Difference -5.010864 -3.524233 -2.902358 -2.588587 -5.750546 -4.090602 -3.473447 Share Price Level -2.074732 -3.522887 -2.901779 -2.588280 -0.359637 -4.088713 -3.472558 1st Difference -8.181234 -3.524233 -2.902358 -2.588587 -8.735399 -4.090602 -3.473447 Augmented Dickey Fuller Statistic in case of the variable of USA LUSSP and LUGDP I have used the same method using intercept and intercept and trend in level and first difference. The level t statistic value for LUSGDP is -3.244801 and -2.866507 respectively with intercept and with intercept and trend. The result for USA is same as the other country which is higher than the critical values. Proves that the series is not integrated with order one and is non stationary. Whereas the first difference t statistic value for LUSGDP is less than the critical value. The t statistic value LUSGDP with intercept is -5.010864 and -5.750546 with intercept and trend. In this case both the values are lesser than the critical value implies that the series is integrated with order one in first difference. While taking the values in level and 1st difference in case of LUSSP the t statistic value in level are -2.074732 and -0.359637 in level respectively with intercept and wit intercept and trend. Still the series is showing the same nature in level as they are higher than the critical values and the series is not integrated in order 0. The first difference value for LUSSP series with trend and with trend and intercept is -8.181234 and -8.735399 respectively which is less than the critical value implies the series is integrated with order one. Form the result of Augmented Dickey Fuller test of the four countries variables (Log GDP and Log Share price) shows that the entire variable has unit root at level which proves that the series is not stationary. However, the result from the first difference shows the significance at 1%, 5% and 10% critical value and found to be stationary behaviour. Therefore, it suggests that all the variables are integrated of order one.
Engle-Granger representation theorem that might have an error correction mechanism is the series is integrated.
JAPAN: LJGDP = 7.97824432568 + 0.163668097988*LJSP Dependent Variable: LJGDP Method: Least Squares Date: 12/17/09 Time: 20:30 Sample: 1991Q1 2009Q2 Included observations: 74
Std. Error t-Statistic C 7.978244 0.120791 66.04995 LJSP 0.163668 0.048847 3.350602 R-squared 0.134891 Mean dependent var
0.122876 S.D. dependent var
0.099321 Akaike info criterion
0.710261 Schwarz criterion
66.90753 Hannan-Quinn criter.
11.22653 Durbin-Watson stat
0.001287
Unit Root test for residual Series saved residual RJP T statistic Test critical values: 1% level 5% level With intercept -2.831807 -3.522887 -2.901779 With intercept and trend -3.040627 -4.088713 -3.472558 From the above table we can see that the result is significant only in 10% level. Which suggest that there might be a long run relationship between the variables. But there is no long run relationship at 1% and 5% significant level as both the values are higher than the critical value. 2nd stage regression result: LJGDP = 7.96681067902 + 0.170453164194*LJSP + 0.819211725701*RJP(-1) Dependent Variable: LJGDP Method: Least Squares Date: 12/31/09 Time: 18:51 Sample (adjusted): 1991Q2 2009Q2 Included observations: 73 after adjustments
Std. Error t-Statistic
7.966811 0.064529 123.4601 LJSP 0.170453 0.026119 6.525992 RJP(-1) 0.819212 0.064206 12.75915
0.747462 Mean dependent var
0.740246 #p#分页标题#e#S.D. dependent var
0.052906 Akaike info criterion
0.195932 Schwarz criterion
112.5137 Hannan-Quinn criter.
103.5928 Durbin-Watson stat
0
Malaysia Following the same stages on Malaysia, by running the regression on OLS to check the long run relationship between stock market and economic growth in Malasia. The equation to check the first stage regression is: LMGDP = 8.2331829641 + 0.340689829517*LMSP The result from the above regression are described in the following table: Dependent Variable: LMGDP Method: Least Squares Date: 12/17/09 Time: 21:00 Sample: 1991Q1 2009Q2 Included observations: 74
Std. Error t-Statistic C 8.233183 0.644484 12.77484 LMSP 0.34069 0.116332 2.928597 R-squared 0.106441 Mean dependent var
0.094031 S.D. dependent var
0.388243 Akaike info criterion
10.85275 Schwarz criterion
-33.97453 Hannan-Quinn criter.
8.576678 Durbin-Watson stat
0.004557
Series T statistic Test critical values: 1% level 5% level With intercept -1.301997 -3.522887 -2.901779 With intercept and trend -3.975164 -4.088713 -3.472558 From the above regression and after saving the residual I performed and ADF test with trend and without trend on the residual series. Here the result suggests that the t statistic value is higher than the critical values of 1%, 5% and 10% level. Which suggest that residual series is non stationary and there is no relationship between the variables in long run.#p#分页标题#e# The estimated equation in error correction model is as follows: LMGDP = 8.13761928798 + 0.360964712114*LMSP + 0.965225800038*R(-1) Dependent Variable: LMGDP Method: Least Squares Date: 01/01/10 Time: 23:15 Sample (adjusted): 1991Q2 2009Q2 Included observations: 73 after adjustments
Std. Error t-Statistic C 8.137619 0.147701 55.09505 LMSP 0.360965 0.02665 13.54478 R(-1) 0.965226 0.027335 35.31042
0.952382 Mean dependent var
0.951022 S.D. dependent var
0.088766 Akaike info criterion
0.551553 Schwarz criterion
74.7374 Hannan-Quinn criter.
700.0218 Durbin-Watson stat
0
UK Dependent Variable: LUGDP #p#分页标题#e#Method: Least Squares Date: 12/17/09 Time: 21:10 Sample: 1991Q1 2009Q2 Included observations: 74
Std. Error t-Statistic
6.41427 0.52629 12.18771 LUSP 0.790239 0.064275 12.29475 R-squared 0.677363 Mean dependent var
0.672882 S.D. dependent var
0.190291 Akaike info criterion
2.607181 Schwarz criterion
18.79298 Hannan-Quinn criter.
151.1608 Durbin-Watson stat
0
t statistic Test critical values: RUK
5% level With Intercept -1.355485 -3.522887 -2.901779 With intercept and trend -2.426938 -4.088713 -3.472558
2nd stage Method: Least Squares Date: 01/04/10 Time: 17:57 Sample (adjusted): 1991Q2 2009Q2 Included observations: 73 after adjustments
Std. Error t-Statistic
6.375942 0.207063 30.79235 LUSP 0.795176 0.025265 31.47291 RUK(-1) 0.937553 0.046342 20.23103 R-squared 0.952647 Mean dependent var
0.951294 S.D. dependent var
0.073512 Akaike info criterion
0.378285 Schwarz criterion
88.50121 Hannan-Quinn criter.
704.1223 Durbin-Watson stat
0
LUSGDP = 6.422388123 + 0.32041281224*LUSSP Dependent Variable: LUSGDP Method: Least Squares Date: 12/31/09 Time: 02:02#p#分页标题#e# Sample: 1991Q1 2009Q2 Included observations: 74
Std. Error t-Statistic
6.422388 0.140166 45.82 LUSSP 0.320413 0.015722 20.38041 R-squared 0.852266 Mean dependent var
0.850214 S.D. dependent var
0.064359 Akaike info criterion
0.29823 Schwarz criterion
99.01496 Hannan-Quinn criter.
415.3609 Durbin-Watson stat
0
Residual saved (RUS) T statistic Test critical values: 1% level 5% level With intercept -0.638033 -3.522887 -2.901779 With intercept and trend -1.430799 -4.088713 -3.472558 After saving the residuals from the 1st stage regression RUS I did the ADF test on it where we can see the t statistic value is literally higher than the 1%, 5% and 10% critical value in both the cases with intercept and with intercept and trend. As we can see the critical values are -3.552287, -2.901779 and -2.588280 with intercept, -1.430799, -3.472558 and -3.163450 in 1%, 5% and 10% level respectively. So the possibility for having long run relationship between GDP and stock price doesn’t exist in case of USA.
2nd stage regression: Method: Least Squares Date: 01/05/10 Time: 21:36 Sample (adjusted): 1991Q2 2009Q2 Included observations: 73 after adjustments
Std. Error t-Statistic C 6.400276 0.051084 125.29 LUSSP 0.323107 0.005722 56.46591 RUS(-1) 0.972896 0.043361 22.43708 R-squared 0.981148 Mean dependent var
0.980609 S.D. dependent var
0.022805 Akaike info criterion
0.036405 Schwarz criterion
173.9453 Hannan-Quinn criter.
1821.53 Durbin-Watson stat
0
I performed the Granger Causality test using the first difference on series DLJGDP and DLJSP, DLMSP and DLMGDP, DLUSGDP and DLUSSP and between DLUGDP and DLUSP Pair wise Granger Causality Tests Sample: 1991Q1 2009Q2 Lags: 3
F-Statistic 1.08475 DLJSP does not Granger Cause DLJGDP 1.38425 DLMSP does not Granger Cause DLMGDP 15.767 DLMGDP does not Granger Cause DLMSP 1.29015 DLUSSP does not Granger Cause DLUSGDP 3.36502 DLUSGDP does not Granger Cause DLUSSP 0.40935 DLUSP does not Granger Cause DLUGDP 4.59524 DLUGDP does not Granger Cause DLUSP 0.76991 From the Granger Causality result table we can see that to reject the null hypotheses the GDP does not because LJSP, here from result we can see the chances to of occurring error type is 1 and is 36.21%. And the probability is too great that GDP does not causing DLJSP to reject the null hypothesis. Moreover, LJSP is causing GDP is also too great to reject the null hypothesis is before. There exist no causal relationship in both the direction. While considering the result from the causality relationship between DLMSP and DLMGDP I founded the same kind of result. Here it is showing that GDP does not cause DLMSP. And in the same way LMSP does not cause the DLGDP. As the f statistic value is too high to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, there is no causal relationship between GDP growth and stock price index yield in case of Malaysia. However, the Granger causality result in case of USA shows a slightly bit different result than the other countries. Here probability of USSP does not granger causing USGDP is too big to reject the null hypothesis. On the other hand we can reject the null that USGDP does not granger causing USSP. The results suggest the existence of causal relationship between the variable. In case of UK we could find any causal relationship between the variable as in both the cases the probability that UGDP does not granger cause USP and USP does not granger cause UGDP is too great to reject the null hypothesis. So, from the above result we can say there is no causal relationship between the variables GDP and economic growth indicator except UK.
The purpose of the paper was to assess the relationship between stock market and Economic Growth. The empirical study was done on the basis of Cointegration test and Causality frame work. The tests were done using the variables quarterly data on GDP and quarterly data on share price index of four countries Japan, Malaysia, The UK and The USA for the period 1991 Q1 to 2009 Q2. In my study the findings from the empirical results are: No long run relationship between stock market Growth and Economic Growth in Japan No long run relationship between stock market Growth and Economic Growth in Japan No long run relationship between stock market Growth and Economic Growth in The UK and USA While analyzing my work, I found some significance and some insignificance in my results. UK and USA stock markets are considered as developed stock market. Randall Filler (200) stock market activity and future economic growth is related with each other specially in developing economies and there may have some effect of the stock market in developed economy which may not be essential. MY study shows the same result as my results shows that there is no long run relationship. If I consider the Levine Zervos (1998), Beck and Levine (2004), No long run relationship between stock market Growth and Economic Growth in The USA (责任编辑：www.ukthesis.org) |