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经济学作业:更好的增长指标的需求

时间:2017-11-01 13:52来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
John Ruskin的四篇政治经济在1860出版,已经成为理论家和实践者的道德经济的起点。Ruskin带着问题与主张客观的政治经济学家,表明财富矿脉其实人脉道德问题应该是财务评价的核心部分。
罗马俱乐部发表了一篇关于增长的限制文章,其中强调世界经济在资源有限的情况下未能维持世界经济,从而为今后环境经济学的发展奠定了基础。
欧盟委员会发表了一篇论文,呼吁建立一个比GDP更能反映社会包容性和其他社会经济特征的更好的增长指标。
法国和德国政府推动欧盟接受更好的生长指标的需要,基于两位诺贝尔奖获得者的工作,Joseph Stiglitz和Amartya Sen,委员会的结论是,这些指标将需要至少七类指标:健康,教育,环境,就业,材料幸福感、人际关系和政治参与。
 
John Ruskin’s Four Essays on Political Economy, published in 1860, have become a point of departure for theorists and practitioners of ethical economy. Ruskin took issue with the claims to objectivity to political economists, suggesting that the veins of wealth were in fact human veins, and that moral questions should be a central part of financial evaluation.
 
Club of Rome, 1972: Club of Rome published an article Limits of Growth in which they stressed on the failure of sustaining the world economy on the shoulders of limited resources and hence laid the foundation for future developments on Environmental Economics.
 
The European Union Commission published a paper calling for a better growth indicator than the GDP which tended to exclude social inclusion and other socio-economic characteristics.
 
Stiglitz-Sen Commission: In February 2010 , the French and the German governments pushed the European Union to accept the need for a better growth indicator, based on the work of two Nobel laureates, Joseph Stiglitz and Amartya Sen .The Commission concluded that such indicators would require metrics from at least seven categories: health, education, environment, employment, material well-being, interpersonal connectedness and political engagement.
 
Henderson’s Analogy: Cahn used Henderson’s analogy of the economy as a large cake (see diagram below). The topmost layer of the cake is the market economy, represented by GNP. The first layer rests on other lower layers, such as the non-market/core economy of human society, and education, or the natural resources of the earth. All the bottom layers subsidise the top GNP layers with un-paid labour and environmental costs.
 
Here, the key insight offered by Edgar Cahn is to point out that in these fields of caring and civic mindedness, the non-market, or ‘core’ economy is actually more efficient than the market.
(责任编辑:BUG)


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