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美国留学生经济学作业需求-产品,信息价值与经济组织研究-Production, Information Costs, a(12)

时间:2011-07-07 11:05来源 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

lines. Hence the emergence of
central power sources expanded the scope
of productive activity in which the firm
enjoyed a comparative advantage as an
organizational form.
Some economists, following Knight,
have identified the bearing of risks of
wealth changes with the director or central
employer without explaining why that is
a viable arrangement. Presumably, the
more risk-averse inputs become employees
rather than owners of the classical firm.
Risk averseness and uncertainty ~ l i t hregard
to the jirm's fortulzes have little, if
anything, to do with our explanation although
it helps to explain why all resources
in a team are not owned by one
person. That is, the role of risk taken in
the sense of absorbing the windfalls that
buffet the firm because of unforeseen competition,
technological change, or fluctuations
in demand are not central to our
theory, although it is true that imperfect
knowledge and, therefore, risk, in this
sense of risk, underlie the problem of
monitoring team behavior. We deduce the
system of paying the manager with a
residual claim (the equity) from the desire
to have efficient means to reduce shirking
so as to make team production economical
and not from the smaller aversion to the
risks of enterprise in a dynamic economy.
We conjecture that "distribution-of-risk"
is not a valid rationale for the existence
and organization of the classical firm.
Although we have emphasized team
production as creating a costly metering
task and have treated team production as
an essential (necessary?) condition for the
firm, would not other obstacles to cheap
metering also call forth the same kind of
contractual arrangement here denoted as
a firm? For example, suppose a farmer
produces wheat in an easily ascertained
quantity but with subtle and difficult to
detect quality variations determined by
how the farmer grew the wheat. -4 vertical
integration could allow a purchaser to
control the farmer's behavior in order to
more economically estimate productivity.
But this is not a case of joint or team
production, unless "information" can be
considered part of the product. (While a
good case could be made for that broader
conception of production, we shall ignore
it here.) Instead of forming a firm, a buyer
can contract to have his inspector on the
site of production, just as home builders
contract with architects to supervise building
contracts; that arrangement is not a
firm. Still, a firm might be organized in
the production of many products wherein
no team production or jointness of use of
separately owned resources is involved.(责任编辑:BUG)

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