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美国留学生经济学作业需求-产品,信息价值与经济组织研究-Production, Information Costs, a(14)

时间:2011-07-07 11:05来源 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

than will inputs with other tasks.
An implicit "auxiliary" assumption of
our explanation of the firm is that the
cost of team production is increased if the
residual claim is not held entirely by the
central monitor. That is, we assume that
if profit sharing had to be relied upon for
all team members, losses from the resulting
increase in central monitor shirking
woulti exceeti the output gains from the
increased incentives of other team members
not to shirk. If the optimal team size
is only two owners of inputs, then an
equal division of profits and losses between
them will leave each with stronger
incentives to reduce shirking than if the
optimal team size is large, for in the latter
case only a smaller percentage of the losses
occasioned by the shirker will be borne by
him. Incentives to shirk are positively related
to the optimal size of the team under
an equal profit-sharing scheme. lo
The preceding does not imply that profit
sharing is never viable. Profit sharing to
encourage self-policing is more appropriate
for small teams. And, intieeti, where input
owners are free to make whatever contractual
arrangements suit them, as generally
is true in capitalist economies, profit
sharing seems largely limited to partner-
IVhile the degree to which residual clainis are centralized
will afiect the size of the team, this will be only
one of many factors that determine team size, so as an
approximation, we can treat team size as exogenously
determined. Cnder certain assumptions about the
shape of the "typical" utility function, the incentive to
avoid shirking with unequal profit-sharing can 1)e measured
hy the Herfindahl index.
ships with a relatively small number of
uctioe" partners. Another advantage of
such arrangements for smaller teams is
that it permits more effective reciprocal
monitoring among inputs. Rlonitoring
need not be entirely specialized.
Profit sharing is more viable if small
team size is associated with situations
where the cost of specialized management
of inputs is large relative to the increased
productivity potential in team effort. IVe
conjecture that the cost of managing team
inputs increases if the productivity of a
team member is difficult to correlate with
his behavior. In "artistic" or "professional"
work, watching a man's activities
is not a good clue to what he is actually
thinking or doing with his mind. 1I:hile it
is relatively easy to manage or direct the
loading of trucks by a team of dock
workers where input activity is so highly
related in an obvious way to output, it is
more difficult to manage and direct a
lawyer in the preparation anti presentation(责任编辑:BUG)

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